B5 Keywords

Cartilage
Softer and more flexible than bone, found in the internal skeleton
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Ossification process
The deposition of calcium and phosphorus which replaces cartilage with bone (usually as a baby)
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Synovial joints
Contain synovial fluid, a synovial membrane, ligaments and cartilage. Examples: ball and socket joint or hinge joint
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Ligaments
Tissue which joins a bone to a bone
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Antagonistic muscles
A pair of muscles that work together - as one contracts the other relaxes
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Double circulatory system
Uses two circuits: the heart to the lungs to collect the oxygen, then the heart to the rest of the body to deliver the oxygen. Example: mammals
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Atria
Chambers in the heart: they receive blood from the lungs and the body
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Ventricles
Chambers in the heart : they distribute blood to the body or the lungs
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Cardiac cycle
The sequence of events as blood enters and leaves the heart: the muscles of the two atria contract and ventricles relax and blood goes through the valves preventing back flow. Muscles in the ventricle then contract forcing blood to the body ect.
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Atrio-ventricular valves
The valve that prevents back flow from the ventricle to the atrium
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Semi-lunar valves
Prevent back flow into the ventricles
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[Natural] pacemakers
Group of cells controlling the rate of heart beat by producing a small current to stimulate muscle contraction. Example: sino-atrial node (SAN) which makes the atria contract; and atrio-ventricular node (AVN) which makes the ventricles contract
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Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Shows a change in electrical impulses in the heart muscle
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Echocardiogram
Displays a video of the heart in action
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Coronary artery
Blood vessels that supply blood to the heart
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Immuno-suppressive drug
Drug which prevents the rejection of donated organs, can lead to easier infection from microorganisms
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Anti-coagulant drugs
Chemical which stops blood clotting - used when blood has been donated and collected
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Cascade [blood clotting]
Blood platelets are exposed to air at a wounded site which triggers a complex sequence of chemical reactions eventually leading to the formation of meshwork of fibrin fibres
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Agglutination
Blood clumping together when they are not compatible - agglutinins in red blood cells react: the proteins, antigen A and antigen B, on the surface of blood cells react with the same anti-A or anti-B in blood plasma
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Intercostal muscles
Muscles connecting rib bones together
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Breathing in
The ribs move up and out while the diaphragm moves downwards causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure decreases - the higher outside pressure allows air to enter the lungs
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Tidal air
Amount of normal air normally breathed out
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Vital capacity
Maximum amount of air which can be exchanged
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Residual air
Amount of air which cannot be forced out of the lungs
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Alveoli
Bulges of air sac in the lungs allowing the gaseous exchange (using diffusion) between blood and oxygen/carbon dioxide. Alveoli are permeable, moist and one cell thick with a large surface area
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Spirometer
Measure of different lung capacities and the rate of air flow - they can help diagnose lung disease
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Asbestosis
Industrial disease as a result of breathing in asbestos fibres causing the inflammation and scarring of lung tissue reducing gaseous exchange
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Asthma
Symptoms: wheezing, tight chest, and difficulty breathing. Inhalers are used to reduce symptoms. During an attack the lining of the airways become inflamed, mucus and fluid build up in airways and the muscles around the bronchioles contract
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Physical digestion
Breaking food into smaller pieces to allow food to pass easily through the digestive system and prepare the food for chemical digestion. Examples: mouth (chewing)
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Protease
The enzyme in the stomach (e.g. pepsin) which breaks down proteins into amino acids. They require a low pH in stomach and high pH in small intestines
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Lipase
Enzyme in the small intestines, used to break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
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Bile
Released by gall bladder into small intestines to emulsify fats increasing their surface area for efficient digestion
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Lymphatic system
A drainage system for fatty acids that gets rid of the body's waste products. Made up of: lymph fluid from the waste fluids; lymph vessels which are tiny vessels running through with the fluid; and lymph nodes (small glands) attached to vessels
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Villi
'Finger-like' structures on the surface of the small intestines which give it a greater surface area for absorption
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Microvilli
On the wall of the villi creating an even larger surface area
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Urea
A waste product made from excess and unwanted amino acids that have been broken down in the liver, it is then taken in the blood to the kidneys. Along with water and salt, urea makes up urine .
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Kidney tubules (nephrons)
Each kidney has millions of microscopic tubules where filtration takes place to form urine. Each one has a network of capillaries surrounded by a capsules; and a region where some molecules are reabsorbed
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Dialysis machine
Used when someone had kidney failure, the machines has many tubes containing blood surrounded by liquid. It acts as an artificial kidney, removing urea from the blood. Urea molecules diffuse through the membrane because they are small.
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Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
Produced in the pituitary gland to control the concentration of urea by increasing the permeability of kidney tubules so more water is absorbed and using negative feedback to control ADH production
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FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Stimulates egg development in the ovary and stimulates oestrogen - FSH is produced in the pituitary gland
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Oestrogen
Produced in the ovaries, it repairs the uterus walls and LH is then released
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Progesterone
Produced in the ovaries, it maintains the uterus wall and stops the egg being released if one has already gone. If fertillisation occurs more progesterone will be released so egg can implant
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LH (luteinising hormone)
Controls egg release (ovulation) and is produced in the pituitary gland - it then stimulates progesterone to be released in the ovaries
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Negative feedback mechanism
Restores the situation after change - also controls level of sex hormones in the menstrual cycle triggered by receptors in the hypothalamus
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Contraceptive pill
Prevents ovulation using artificial sex hormones to make the body think it is pregnant
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IVF (in vitro fertilisation)
The egg is fertilised by the sperm outside the body and implanted into the uterus
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Aminocentesis
Extracting and testing cells in the amniotic fluid to check if developing foetus has any abnormalities
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Chromosomal analysis
Using a blood test to test for any chromosome abnormalities in a developing foetus
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Growth hormones
Produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate general growth, especially in long bones
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Mechanical replacement organs
These organ replacements require a power supply to carry out the function of the original organ that may have failed or may have become damaged
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The deposition of calcium and phosphorus which replaces cartilage with bone (usually as a baby)

Back

Ossification process

Card 3

Front

Contain synovial fluid, a synovial membrane, ligaments and cartilage. Examples: ball and socket joint or hinge joint

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Tissue which joins a bone to a bone

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A pair of muscles that work together - as one contracts the other relaxes

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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