B3 Living and Growing

What process occurs in mitrochondria?
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Which process do ribosomes carry out?
Protein synthesis
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What are chromosomes made of?
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Name the structure of DNA and who discovered it?
Double helix - Watson and Crick
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How are proteins made in the nucleus?
A copy of the gene is made using mRNA leaving the nucleus and carrying the code to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
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How do the four bases in DNA pair up?
A-T and C-G
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What do enzymes do to a cell?
Controls the cell activity
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Which two other scientific discoveries lead to Watson's and Crick's discovery?
X-ray photographs of DNA with two chains wound in a helix and data indicating that bases occurred in pairs
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Name the four types of proteins and give some examples.
Structural proteins e.g. collagen; hormones e.g. insulin; carrier proteins e.g. haemoglobin; enzymes
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What are enzymes also known as?
Biological catalysts
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Which reactions do enzymes catalyse?
Respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis
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Where does the substrate molecule fit into the enzyme?
Active site
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Explain why enzymes can only work on a particular substrate.
The enzymes active site is in a specific shape that will only fit the substrate which is why it is known as 'the lock and key' mechanism
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Why do enzymes not work effectively at different pH's?
Different pH values from the optimum will change the shape of the active site - called denaturing
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What is a mutation?
The order of the four bases in DNA changing/changing the order of the amino acids
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What could mutations lead to?
Production of different proteins produced; become harmful; have no effect; or become an advantage
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How do different cells perform different functions?
They switch off certain genes in the DNA
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What does respiration do?
Releases energy from food trapped in ATP. ATP is used to provide energy
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Describe what happens during anaerobic respiration.
There is a lack of oxygen to the body, so lactic acid is used to provide the muscles with energy. The lactic acid causes muscle fatigue and pain, it also releases less energy per gram than glucose
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How does the body recover from anaerobic respiration?
Breathing rate and heart rate stay high so blood flows rapidly to carry the lactic acid away and extra oxygen is needed to break down the lactic acid
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What is the metabolic rate?
The sum of all reactions occurring in the body
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What is cell differentiation?
Cells in the body have different functions that will not change
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Which systems do multicellular organisms need?
Communication between cells; supply cells with nutrients; control exchanges with environment
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Describe the process of mitosis.
Each chromosome is copied and the single strands form 'X' shapes; chromosomes arrange along the equator using spindle forms; single strands move to the poles; identical cells are made
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How does DNA replicate?
The two strands of DNA 'unzip' and form single strands, the new double strand is then made when complementary pairs are lined up
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What type of cells does meiosis create?
Gametes (haploid cells)
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Describe the process of meiosis.
Chromosomes pair up; one from each pair moves to the poles; each strand is pulled apart to opposite poles; four new haploid cells are formed
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How is the sperm cell adapted to it's function?
Lots of mitochondria to provide energy to swim and acrosome releasing enzymes to digest egg membrane
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Which substances does plasma carry around the body?
Dissolved food, carbon dioxide, hormones, antibodies and waste substances (e.g. urea)
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How are red blood cells adapted to their function?
Small to pass through small blood vessels; biconcave so they have a large surface area and exchange quickly; contain haemoglobin to combine with oxygen; have no nucleus to let in more haemoglobin
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Explain how the red blood cells carry the oxygen and the reactions that take place?
Haemoglobin reacts with the oxygen from the lungs to make oxyhaemoglobin, it is then pumped around a body and the reaction is reversed so the tissue can receive the oxygen.
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What jobs do arteries have and how are they adapted?
Carry blood away from the heart to tissue (usually with oxygenated blood) with thick walls for high pressure
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How are veins adapted to their function?
They have large lumen and valves to keep the blood from flowing backwards because the pressure is low
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From the vena cava, list the parts of the heart the blood will enter in order.
Vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle and arorta
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Which valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart?
Semilunar, tricuspid and bicuspid
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Why does the left ventricle have thicker muscles than the right?
It has to pump blood around the whole of the body
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What is the name for the human circulatory system called? And why does it help us?
Double circulatory system helps because blood can flow at high pressures and get to tissue at a faster rate
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How do bacteria cells differ from animal and plant cells?
They don't contain a nucleus, mitochondria or chloroplast
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When are the two rapid growth phases in a human life?
Just after birth and adolescence
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What sort of mass is the best indication for measuring growth?
Dry mass - obtained by killing the organism and getting rid of any water
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Why might different parts of an organism grow at different rates?
Different parts are needed at different times in the organisms life
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What are stem cells?
Undifferentiated cells that will develop into a different type of cell
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Give one argument for and against using stem cells in research
For: help treat life threatening illnesses. Against: embryos are destroyed
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Describe some difference between plant and animal growth.
Animals only grow to a certain size; plants carry on growing to any size; plant cells only divide in the meristem (found in roots and tips); plants gain height due to cells enlarging; plant cells keep the ability to differentiate but animals loss it
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Which problems may occur from selective breeding?
May lead to interbreeding due to lack of gene pool - increasing risk of harmful characteristics and reduction in variation
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Name one advantage and one risk with genetic engineering
Advantage: organism can have desired characteristics quickly. Risk: harmful side effects
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Give some examples of genetically engineered organisms.
Rice containing vitamin A for under developed countries; bacteria to make human insulin; crop plants to resist herbicides, frost or disease
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What are some of the ethical issues with genetic engineering?
Long-term side effects disturbing ecosystem or may be moral wrong
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How is genetic engineering carried out?
Characteristic selected, genes responsible removed and inserted into the organism, organism then reproduces
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What is gene therapy?
Changing a persons gene to cure a disorder which is very controversial because it could lead to 'designer babies'
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Why might animals be cloned?
Mass-produce a certain characteristic, provide human product or research into stem cells
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Describe the process of cloning.
Donor egg had nucleus removed; egg cell had DNA from cloned organism inserted; egg cell given electric shock to make divide; embryo implanted into surrogate mother; embryo became genetically identical to sheep giving DNA
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What is one advantage and one risk of cloning?
Advantage: give humans replacement organs. Risk: spread disease or be harmful
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What are the disadvantages for cloning plants?
If the plant become susceptible to disease, all plants will be affected and there is a lack of genetic variation
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Explain what happens during tissue culture (plants being cloned)
Plant selected and tissue cut from plant. Small pieces of tissue grown in test tube containg growth medium. An aseptic technique is used to stop microbes infecting the plant
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Why is it easier to clone plants than animals?
Plant cells have the ability to differentiate for a long time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Which process do ribosomes carry out?


Protein synthesis

Card 3


What are chromosomes made of?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Name the structure of DNA and who discovered it?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How are proteins made in the nucleus?


Preview of the front of card 5
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