B1 - OCR 21st Century

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What is variation caused by?
Genetic or environmental factors
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Structural proteins are…
Part of stuff like hair, skin, blood and cytoplasm in our cells. E.G. Collagen – found in tendons, bones and cartilage.
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Examples of functional proteins
Enzymes are functional proteins which help digestion by breaking down food molecules. I.E. Amylase breaks starch to maltose.
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Genes are…
Codes for making a certain protein.
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Genotype/Phenotype are...
Genotype – Type of genes an organism has. Phenotype – Characteristics displayed.
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Where are chromosomes found in the cell?
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene
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What is weight determined by?
A mix of environmental and genetic factors.
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Homozygous - 2 of the same alleles. Hetrozygous - 2 different alleles.
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How does the Y chromosome cause an embryo to develop into a male?
Y chromosome causes production of specific protein which causes development of testes, leading to production of male sex hormones and in turn the rest of the male reproductive system is developed.
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Symptoms of C.F
Difficulty breathing, sticky mucus in air passage, chest infections and difficulty digesting food.
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Treatment for C.F
Gene therepy, physiotherepy - to loosen mucus, antibiotics - to fight bacteria, nasal sprays - thin mucus
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Symptoms of Huntingtons Diesease
Tremors, clumsiness, memory loss, mood changes and poor concentration.
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Testing embryos for genetic disorder is called...
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)
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Uses of genetic testing
To see if a person carries alleles for a genetic disorder or if a certain drug would be an effective course of treatment for them
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Issues regarding genetic testing
Errors can be made - leading to false positive/negative, 0.5 - 1% chance of miscarriage in pregnancy, termination of pregnancy become likely is test if positive.
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Differences between adult and embryonic stem cells...
Embryonic - turns into any kind of cells, can replace faulty cells, adult - only turn into certain types of cells, used to repair/maintain old/damaged tissue
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Example of how stem cells could treat an illness...
Sickle cell anaemia - treated by bone marrow transplants, adult stem cells can turn into new blood cells to replace old ones. Insluin producing cells can be made to treat diabeties.
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Card 2


Structural proteins are…


Part of stuff like hair, skin, blood and cytoplasm in our cells. E.G. Collagen – found in tendons, bones and cartilage.

Card 3


Examples of functional proteins


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Card 4


Genes are…


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Card 5


Genotype/Phenotype are...


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