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B7 Further Biology
(OCR 21st Century)
W Richards
The Weald School…read more

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An "Ecosystem" is a physical environment with a particular set
of organisms living in it. They can be natural, e.g. a woodland,
or artificial, e.g. a greenhouse.
A natural ecosystem with An artifical ecosystem ­
high "biodiversity" biodiversity will be
controlled and low…read more

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Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Basically, autotrophs are organisms that make their own food
and heterotrophs are organisms that can't.
Examples of autotrophs Examples of heterotrophs…read more

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Food chains
A food chain shows where the energy goes in a food chain (in
other words, "what gets eaten by what"):
Herbivore Top carnivore
Producer (primary Secondary (tertiary
consumer) consumer consumer)
Cabbage Rabbit Stoat Fox
Plants convert the sun' The arrows indicate where
s energy into food the energy is going…read more

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Energy flow in a food chain
Consider the energy flow through each "trophic level":
100% 10% 1% 0.1%
Cabbage Rabbit Stoat Fox
Clearly, not all of the ___'s energy that becomes stored in the
_______ will end up in the fox. Only around ______ is passed
on to the next stage in each food chain.
Energy is lost at each stage because of a number of reasons:
1) Each organism has to ____, keep warm etc
2) Energy is lost through faeces (______)
Words ­ 10%, move, sun, waste, cabbage…read more

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Pyramids of number
In this food chain we can see that the number of organisms in
each stage is less than in the previous stage:
Cabbage Rabbit Stoat Fox
We can draw a "Pyramid of Numbers" to show this pattern:
One fox
A few stoats
Some rabbits
Lots of cabbages…read more

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