B1.2 Nerves and Hormones

  • Created by: ellaj03
  • Created on: 22-02-17 13:04
What are the five sensory organs?
Eyes, ears, nose, tongue/mouth and skin.
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Name the processes in the reflex arc (9)
Stimulus, receptor, sensory neurone, synapse, relay neurone (CNS), synapse, motor neurone, effector then response.
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What is the central nervous system?
It is where the information from the sense organs is sent and where all reflexes and actions are coordinated. It includes the brain and spinal cord only.
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What is a synapse? How are messages transmitted through them?
It is the gap between two neurones and the signal is transferred by chemicals that diffuse across the gap before sending the electrical signal through the next neurone.
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What is a reflex?
A reflex is an automatic response to a certain stimulus.
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What do sensory neurones do?
They carry signals as electrical impulses from the receptors to the CNS.
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What to motor neurones do?
Carry signals from the CNS to the effectors.
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What do relay neurones do?
The neurone that sends signals from the sensory neurone to the motor neurone.
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What are effectors?
Effectors are muscles or golands that respond to a nervous impulse.
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What is a hormone?
A chemical messanger that travels in the blood to activate target cells, secreted by glands.
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What are the two glands that control the menstrual cycle?
The pituitary gland in the brain and the ovaries.
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What are the three properties of nerves?
Very fast action, act for a short time and target a precise area.
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What are the three properties of hormones?
Slow action, act for a long time and act in a more general way.
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What is FSH?
FSH is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, it causes the egg to mature and stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen.
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What is Oestrogen?
Oestrogen is produced in the ovaries, it causes the pituitary to produce LH and inhibits the further release of FSH.
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What is LH?
LH is produced by the pituitary gland and it causes the egg to be released.
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What happens in Stage One of the menstrual cycle?
On day one the blleding starts and the uterus breaks down for about four days.
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What happens in Stage Two of the menstrual cycle?
The lining of the uterus builds up again, from day 4 to 14, into a thick spongy layer of blood vessels ready to recieve a fertilisied egg.
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What happens in Stage Three of the menstrual cycle?
An egg is released from the ovary on day 14.
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What happens in Stage Five of the menstrual cycle?
The wall of the uterus is maintained for 14 days (from day 14 to day 28). If no fertilised egg lands on the uterus wall by day 28 the spongy lining breaks down and the cycle begins again.
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How is oestrogen used to prevent fertility?
If oestrogen is taken every day to keep oestrogen levels permeantly high then this will inhibit the production of FSH preventing the egg from maturing.
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How is progesterone used to prevent fertility?
Progesterone produces a thick cervical mucus which prevents any sperm from getting through and fertilising an egg.
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What is the pill? What does it contain?
The pill is an oral contraceptive made in the 1950's, it contains high levels of oestrogen and progesterone.
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What are the advantages of the pill? (2)
It is over 99% effective and can actually reduce the risk of getting certain types of cancers.
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What are the disadvantages of the pill? (5)
It isn't 100% effective, there were concerns about the lihnk between oestrogen levels and blood clots, it doesn't protect against STDs, has to be taken daily and it can cause side effects.
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What are the side effects of the pill? (4)
headaches, nausea, irregular menstrual bleeding and fluid retention.
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What two hormones are used to increase fertility in women?
FSH and LH.
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What are the pros and cons for injecting women with FSH and LH? (3)
It does help a lot of women get pregnant however it doesn't always work and too many eggs could be stimulated resulting in multiple pregnancies.
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Why are multiple births risky?
There's a higher risk of miscarriages and still births also the babies could be smaller.
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What is IVF? Describe the process
IVF is a treatment used by people who can't get pregnant. It involves collecting eggs from a womens ovary and fertilising them in a lab with some sperm. These are then grown into embryos, next a chosen embryo is implanted into the women's uterus.
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How are hormones used in IVF?
Before collecting eggs from the womens ovaries she is injected with FSH and LH to stimulate egg production.
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What are the advantages to IVF?
Fertility treatment can give an infertile couple a child.
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What are the disadvantages to IVF?
Some women have strong reactions to the hormones (abdominal pain, vomitting, dehydration). It can cause multiple births and there are some reports of increased risk of cancer due to the hormone treatment.
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What is the name of the plant growth hormone? Where does it control growth?
It is called auxin and it controls growth near the tips of the shoots and roots.
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What are the three types of tropism?
Phototropism (light), hydrotropism (water) and gravitropism/geotropism (gravity).
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Which side of the plant does auxin grow on?
The auxin always grows on the long side of the plant to elongate the cells on that side.
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What does it mean if the tropism is positive or negative?
If it bends towards gravity or the (light/water) source it is positive tropism if it bends away it is negative tropism.
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In roots would it be positive or negative geotropism?
Positive
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In shoots would it be positive or negative geotropism?
Negative
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In roots would it be positive or negative phototropism?
Negative
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In shoots would it be positive or negative phototropism?
Positive
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In roots would it be positive or negative hydrotropism?
Positive
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In shoots would it be positive or negative hydrotropism?
Negative
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How are plant hormones used in agriculture?
Selective weed killers contain plant growth hormones which only affect the broad leaved plants, they distrust their normal growth patterns which kills the weeds and leaves the crops untouched.
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What are the four things your body needs to keep constant?
Ion content, water content, sugar content and temperature.
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What organ regulates ion content?
Kidneys
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How is water lost from the body?
In sweat, in breath and in urine.
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How do you lose water on a cold day?
On a cold day you won't sweat as much so you'll produce more urine which is more pale.
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How do you lose water on a hot day?
On a hot day you will sweat more so your body will produce less more concentrated urine?
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What is the optimum body temperature?
37 degrees as the enzymes in your body work best at this temperature.
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What is metabolic rate?
Metabolic rate is the rate at which chemical reactions in your body take place.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name the processes in the reflex arc (9)

Back

Stimulus, receptor, sensory neurone, synapse, relay neurone (CNS), synapse, motor neurone, effector then response.

Card 3

Front

What is the central nervous system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a synapse? How are messages transmitted through them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a reflex?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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