B1 Chapter 2 - Coordination and Control

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The 1. _______ ______ allows the body to respond to 2. _______ in it's 3. ___________.
1. nervous system 2. changes 3. environment
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Give some examples of a receptor.
Ears - sensitive to sound and changes in position; eyes - sensitive to light; nose/ tongue - sensitive to chemicals; skin - sensitive to touch, pressure, pain and temperature.
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Like most animal cells, light receptors have a 1._______, 2._________ and a 3.____ ________
1. nucleus 2. cytoplasm 3. cell membrane (you should be able to identify these structures)
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What are nerve cells also known as?
Neurones.
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When a 1.________ is stimulated, it sends a signal along the 2._______ to the brain. The brain 3._________ a response.
1. receptor 2. neurones 3. coordinates
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Reflex arc: Stimulus - to - s____ o____ - to - s______ n_____ - to - r____ n_____ - to - m____ n_____ - to - e_______ o____ - to - reflex action
Stimulus - to - sense organ - to - sensory neuron - to - relay neuron - to - motor neuron - to - effector organ - to - reflex action
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What is homeostasis?
The maintenence of constant internal body conditions
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Why do water content and ion levels in the body have to be controlled?
To protect cells from too much water entering or leaving them.
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Water can be lost from the body by the 1._____ (when we exhale), through the skin (when we 2._____) and through 3._____ (when we pass it)
1.lungs 2. sweat 3. urine
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Ions can be lost from the body through the 1.____ (through sweating) and by passing 2._____
1.skin 2.urine
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Why does the temperature of the body have to be maintained at a temperature close to 37 degrees?
because that is the temperature a which enzymes work best.
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Temperature is controlled by 1.________, 2.________ and controlling 3._____ flow to the 4.____
1. sweating 2. shivering 3. blood 4. skin
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Why do blood sugar levels have to be controlled?
To provide cells with a contant supply of energy.
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Blood 1._____ levels are controlled by the 2._______ and release of 3.______ which is controlled by 4._______
1. sugar 2. storage 3. glucose 4. insulin
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Hormones are 1.________ secreted by 2.______ into the 3._____ which transports them to their different 4.______ organs. Hormones 5.________ the functions of many cells and organs.
1. chemicals 2. glands 3. blood 4. target 5. regulate
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The menstraul cycle is the 1._________ cycle in women controlled by 2.________ in which the lining of the 3.______ is prepared for pregnancy but is then 4.____ if pregancy does not occur.
1. reproductive 2. hormones 3. uterus 4. shed
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FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) - secreted by the 1. _________ _____, causes an egg to 2.______ in the ovary and 3._________ the production of 4._______
1. pituitary gland 2. mature 3. stimulates 4. oestrogen
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Oestrogen - porduced by the 1._______, stops the production of 2.___ and stimulates the production of 3.__
1. ovaries 2.FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) 3. LH (Luteinising Hormone)
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LH (Luteinising Hormone) - produced by the 1._________ _____, 2.________ the release of the egg from the ovary and stops the production of 3._______
1. pituitary gland 2. triggers 3. oestrogen
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Why do oral contraceptives only contain small amounts of oestrogen or only progesterone now?
because large amounts of oestrogen cause side effects such as changes in weight, mood and blood pressure.
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FSH and LH are used as ________ _____ in women who don't produce enough FSH for their eggs to mature.
fertility drugs
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IVF (In vitro fertilisation) is when the egg is _________ outside of the body if the man's sperm is poor quality or there is not enough. FSH is given to increase the numer of eggs avaliable for fertilisation.
fertilised
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Plants produce hormones and respond to external ______.
stimuli
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A _______ is a growth in response to a stimulus.
tropism
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An _____ is a plant hormone produced in the stem tips and roots
auxin
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What is a positive tropism?
When the plant grows towards the stimulus.
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What is a negative tropism?
When the plant grows away from the stimulus.
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The shoot of a plant grows 1._______ light for photosynthesis because 2.____ gathers on the shaded side of the stem. 2._____ makes the shoot grow more so the shoot grows more on the shaded side and so bends 1.______ the light.
1. towards 2.auxin
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How do shoots grow in reponse to gravity?
Up because the auxin gathers on the bottom side of the shoot and that side gows more, bending the shoot upwards.
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How do roots grow in reponse to gravity?
Down because the auxin gathers on the bottom side of the root and that side gows less, bending the root downwards.
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Why are plant hormones used as rooting powder and weed killer?
because they cause weeds to grow too quickly and die and cause stem cutting to quickly develop roots.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give some examples of a receptor.

Back

Ears - sensitive to sound and changes in position; eyes - sensitive to light; nose/ tongue - sensitive to chemicals; skin - sensitive to touch, pressure, pain and temperature.

Card 3

Front

Like most animal cells, light receptors have a 1._______, 2._________ and a 3.____ ________

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are nerve cells also known as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When a 1.________ is stimulated, it sends a signal along the 2._______ to the brain. The brain 3._________ a response.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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