9780199152650

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Chapter 8:
Cells, tissues and organs
Cells: building blocks of life
Living things are made of cells. Many of the chemical reactions that keep organisms alive (metabolic functions) take
place in cells.
COMMON FEATURES OF CELLS
All cells (with a few exceptions) have these three things:
Cell membrane: a thin `skin' that Cytoplasm: the contents of the cell Nucleus: the `control centre' of the cell.
surrounds the cell contents. It controls (except for the nucleus). It is made up of It contains the genetic material (DNA)
the passage of dissolved substances into water and dissolved substances. that carries the instructions that control
and out of the cell. This membrane is It also contains small structures the structure and activities of the cell. (Red
selectively permeable. (organelles) where chemical reactions blood cells do not have nuclei.)
take place.
PLANT CELL FEATURES ANIMAL CELL FEATURES
Cell wall: a rigid (stiff) Irregular shape: animal
cell wall made of cellulose. cells do not have a rigid cell
This gives support. As a wall so they are irregular
result, plant cells are fairly PLANT CELL in shape.
ANIMAL CELL
regular in shape. Water
and dissolved substances
can pass through the Nucleus Denser cytoplasm:
permeable cell wall. animal cells contain more
dissolved substances and
more organelles than plant
Vacuole: the large, cells. For example, animal
permanent vacuole cells contain more of the
contains water and rod-like structures called
dissolved substances (cell mitochondria where
sap). This helps to maintain respiration takes place. This
pressure in the cells. is so they can release lots
Cytoplasm of energy quickly for fast
movement.
Chloroplasts: these
contain chlorophyll and
the enzymes needed for Stored food
photosynthesis. They are (glycogen): carbohydrates
found in the cells of green are stored as glycogen in
plants. animal cells.
Stored food (starch): Cell membrane Vacuoles: animal cells
photosynthesis produces may have several small,
glucose (sugar). This is temporary vacuoles.
converted into starch and These can be for digestion or
stored in the cytoplasm. the excretion of excess water.
WORKING OUT THE SIZE OF CELLS: you will need to measure something, and use a magnification to work out an actual size
Measured length Measured length
MAgnification = ______________ so Actual length = ______________
Actual length Magnification
22

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Cells, tissues and organs 08
Cells, tissues, organs and organ systems
Multicellular plants and animals contain many different types of cell. Each type of cell is designed for a particular function.
Cells are organized to form tissues, organs, and organ systems. In a healthy organism, all the systems work together.
SPECIALIZED CELLS ORGANISM
Organism
human
A specialized cell is designed to do a Various organ systems together make up
particular job. an organism.…read more

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IGCSE Revision guide: Biology
1. The diagram below shows several types of animal and plant cell (not drawn to scale).
Z
cell* __________ cell* __________
sequence ___________ sequence ___________
cell* __________ cell* __________
sequence ___________ sequence ___________
Y
cell* __________
X sequence ___________
(5)
a. Use the key below to identify each of the cells 4 Cell containing a nucleus ............................ go to 5
marked with an asterisk (*). Write the letter Cell lacking a nucleus ..................................…read more

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Cells, tissues and organs 08
b. Three of the cells shown in the diagram are types ii. Name of cell
of human blood cell. Name each of the three cells Function
and describe ONE function of each of the cells. iii. Name of cell
i. Name of cell Function (3)
Function
2. The diagrams below show a plant cell, an animal cell and a virus. The diagrams are NOT
drawn to the same scale.…read more

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IGCSE Revision guide: Biology
3. The diagram shows a cell from a plant leaf. 4. a. The diagrams below show five types of tissue.
Match each tissue with its correct function. (5)
Absorbs water and
minerals from soil
for the plant
C
Carries oxygen
around the body
of mammals
A
Contracts to cause
movement within
B animals
Moves dust and
bacteria up the
bronchi of a
mammal
a. Name structures A and B. (2)
b. Structure C is a chloroplast.…read more

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Cells, tissues and organs 08
REVISION SUMMARY: Fill in the missing words
Use words from this list to complete the following paragraphs. The words may be used
once, more than once or not at all.
PALISADE CELL, EPIDERMIS, TISSUES, EXCRETORY SYSTEM, SPECIALISED, CELLS, BLOOD,
KIDNEY, CHLOROPLASTS, LEAF, RED BLOOD CELL, DIVISION OF LABOUR, XYLEM, PHLOEM,
NERVOUS, SYSTEMS, ENDOCRINE, ORGAN
a. Large numbers of ........................that have the same structure and function are
grouped together to form ........................, for example ........................…read more

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