nervous syestem

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  • Created by: zaktar
  • Created on: 07-12-19 17:15

abiotic and biotic factors

  • abiotic factors:non living things e.gsoil levels,oxygen levels,carbon dixoide levels,temperature and light intestity
  • biotic factors:living factors-predtors,compettion for food,availbity of food,
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Adaptations

                                                                           cold animals

  • a thick layer of fur to trap a layer of air in which acts as a insulator to keep the animals warm
  • a layer of fat which also has the same function as the layer of skin and fur 
  • small ears reduces surface area so less energy can go out
  • white colour to camouflage in the snow so they dont get eaten by predetors
  • large feet to spread body weight around 

warm animals

  • structural adaptions feartures on a animals body to help them survive
  • behavavruial adaptions is how the animals behave in a ceratin enviroment
  • functional adaption-things happening inside the organism of the body related to reproduction and metaboloism
  • thick coat of fur that protects them from the sun
  • long eyelashes stops the sand going in animal eyes
  • nostrils close so sand does not get in them
  • thick lips so no pain comes to them when eating prickerly plants
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hormonal coordination in humans

  • a hormone a chemical that changes the functions of target cells
  • the piruity gland which is in the brain and it secretes a follicle stimulateing hormonewhich contours the bolld water level in the kidney,luternising hormone triggers ovalution
  • ovaries in the lower abdomen which secteres oestrogen targetting ovarires uterus and pitruity gland
  • progestorne maintains uterus lining
  • testes sectre testorone which is targets males reproductive organs and controls puberty in males
  • pancreas is behind the stomach produces insulin for the liver which controls blood sugar levels
  • adranal galand on top of both kidneys produces adrenaline prepares body for action target oragn heart and liver
  • endocine system where in endocrine glands produce hormones which are carried in  the blood to a placw where it has a effect
  • side effects of adranaline,widens bronchlios alloeing more air intake,fatser heart rate,liver breaks down glucagon,metabolic activity increases
  • thryroid gland produces thyroxine which regulates heart and metabloic rate and digestive funstions,musles control and more
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continued hormones coordination

  • Vasocobtriction-decreases warm blood flow,hairs flatten and swaet foems
  • hypothalamus and receptors in the skin detect temperature change body approx shpuls be 37 degrees
  • Insulin isn't produced, hence less glucose is absorbed, hence blood glucose levels increase. The exact opposite happens when levels are too high.
  • body stores glucagon when energy is needed body converts it back to glucose and relesaese it in the blood
  • Type 1 diabetes- Not enough insulin produced by insulin. Type 2- When the body does not respond properly to insulin.
  • inslin injection to teart diabetese is cheaper and discreeter,great chance of high or low glucose concentration
  • insulin pump to treat diabites-+ Uses less insulin per day and better control of blood glucose concentration. -= Must be worn almost all of the time and it is more expensive.
  • urea breaks down amino acids in the liver
  • kidneys should balance mineral and ion levels in the blood
  • nephron is where the excess watera nd minerals are removed from the blood
  • FSH causes egg to mature and orders ovarise to relaese it
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classification

  • 5 kingdoms
  • Plants, animals, fungi, protoctists, prokaryotes
  • autorophs make their own food
  • Contain chlorophyll, autotrophs, multicellular and rigid cell walls if a organism contains these then is classed as a plant
  • heterotrophs cant make their own food have to find it
  • Heterotrophs, multicellular, no cell wall, no chlorophyll if a orgaism has this is classed as animal
  • saphrophytes eat off dead organisms and decaying mateiral
  • saprophytes, multicellular, cell wall, no chlorophyll an oraganism that does that is classed as fungi
  • protoctisits are unicellular and have a nucleas
  • prokaryotes are unicelluar and dont have nucleas
  • kingdoms split into the following-Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  • genus and species are the binomial system
  • the binomial sysytem is important as it clearly identifies species
  • a group of an organism that can breed to produce offspring that are fertile thats what you class species as
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classification continued

  • this organism does not fit in any kingdom Euglena, It has chloroplasts like a plant, It has no cell wall like an animal, It has a flagellum to swim with like bacteria.
  • virus are not living things as when it enters a cell it changes how the cell works and makes cpoies
  • vertebtrates have a long rod acting as their backbone
  • if somehing has no backbone it is called intevertrabes
  • vertebrates are reptiles,mammals,fish,amphians,birds
  • oviparous means lays eggs
  • hoeotherms means regulates own body temperature
  • poikilotherms body temperature changes according to its surronding
  • vertebrates are classified because the way oxygen is aborbed and reproduction
  • reptioles have lungs,internal fertilisation,lay eggs,their bodt tempertaure changes according to their surronding
  • amphians adults have lungs young have gills,external fertilisation,lay egg,bodt temp changes with surronding
  • fish have gills,external fertilastion,lay eggs,and body temp changes according to the surronding
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classification continued

  • birds have lungs,regular body temperture,lay eggs,internal fertilastion
  • mamals have lungs,internal fertilastion,dont lay eggs and have regular body temperture
  • a hybrid two diffrent species offsping
  • ring species neighbouring population of species that interbreed and have slightly diffrent characteristics
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ecosystem

  • an organism that makes its own food is called a producer
  • primary consumer-a organism that eats the producer
  • secondary consumer-an oraginsm thta eats the primary consumer
  • habitat-a place where organisms live
  • ecosystem-a place where animal and plants in a habitat living in a enviroment
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contraception

  • barrier methods-condoms,and diaphrams which stops the sperm reachinh the egg
  • oral contraceptives-contains hormones to stop the production of fsh so eggs dont mature
  • spermidical agents-kills or disables sperm
  • abstaining-avoid having sex when an egg is in the oviduct
  • surgery for either man or women
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quantitative chemistry

  • mass is kept the same as none are lost or made=conservation of mass
  • the summ of all relative atomic mass of all the elements in a formula=relative formula mass
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why did william win the battle of hastings

the battle of hastings took place in 1066 as when the king had died and not left a successor harold godeinson had taken over the throne still having two peeople competing for the throne.harald hardarda and william duke of normandy.the battle of hastings was againest willaiam and harold godwinson.one reason willaim won the battle of hastings was because william came more prepared his men were fed and rested and he had been preparing for two weeks.whereas harold was just back on his way from his fight with hardrada at stamford bridge and his soliders were not even rested when he had to go fight william.also williams men were better fighters than harolds as most of harolds men were farmers

but the main reason william won was because of his battle tactics he had spread a rumour that he had died to loosen the english defence line which had worked as they seperated leaving the king un protected letting one of williams archers to shoot a arrow through his eye killing harold and letting willaiam be king

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step 1-hastings to london

after waiting at hastings william went to romeany for punishing the town for killing the normans so he burned the town and killed the people.next he went to dover and that time surrendered to him because of what he did to the previous town.next he went to canterbury where the town promised to be loyal to him.he sent soliders to queen edith who was edwards wife to surreneder and harolds son fled to ireland.the english nobles were deciding as to what to do because they could make edgar the king.so edgar had the support of all the englishnobles.many epopel were worried of edgars age and whether he would able to rule effectively thats where he lost his support.englishnobles got scared and thought if they backed william they would still have there power.so in december edgar and his suppoerters went to plege there loyalty to william as they should have done before.

in december william was crowned the king of england

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diabetes

  • Type 1 and type 2 diabetes both occur when the body cannot properly store and use glucose, which is essential for energy. Sugar, or glucose, collects in the blood and does not reach the cells that need it, which can lead to serious complications.Type 1 diabetes usually appears first in children, but it can occur in older people, too. The immune system attacks the beta cells so that they can no longer produce insulin. There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes is more likely to appear as people age, but many children are now starting to develop it. In this type, the pancreas produces insulin, but the body cannot use it effectively. 
  • Both types of diabetes can lead to complications, kidney disease, vision loss, and damage to blood vessels and organs.
  • Type 1 and type 2 have different causes, but they both involve insulin.Insulin is a type of hormone. The pancreas produces it to regulate the way blood sugar becomes energy.Type 1 diabetes often affects young people.
  • In this type, scientists believe that the immune system mistakenly attacks the beta cells, which produce insulin
  • The immune system destroys these cells, which means that the body can no longer make enough insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Type 1 often affects children and young adults, but it can happen later in life. It can start suddenly, and it tends to worsen quickly.
  • Type 2 diabetes-In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells start to resist the effects of insulin. In time, the body stops producing enough insulin, so it can no longer use glucose effectively.This means glucose cannot enter the cells. Instead, it builds up in the blood.This is called insulin resistance.It can happen when the person always or often has high blood glucose. 
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menural cycle

Several hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle of a woman:follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) causes the maturation of an egg in the ovary.luteinising hormone (LH) stimulates the release of the egg.oestrogen is involved in repairing and thickening the uterus lining, progesterone maintains it.The menstrual cycles last for approximately 28 days, and graphs can be used to follow changes to the hormones during this process.

Image result for menstrual cycle phases gcse biology"

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IVF

If a couple are having difficulty conceiving a child because there are issues with the quality of the man's sperm, or a woman has blocked oviducts, then IVF can be used.IVF involves giving a mother FSH and LH to stimulate the maturation of several eggs.The eggs are collected from the mother and fertilised by sperm from the father in a dish in the laboratory.The fertilised eggs develop into embryos.At the stage when they are tiny balls of cells one or two embryos are inserted into the mother's uterus (womb)The development of microscopy techniques have allowed IVF treatments to be developed further.

 

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meiosis

  • Meiosis is the type of cell division that produces gametes. A human body cell contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. Human gametes are haploid – so their nucleus only contains a single set of 23 unpaired chromosomes.stage 1-parent cells-stage 2-chromosomes make original copies of themeselves-stage 3-chromosomes pair up-stage 4-sections of dna get swapped-stage 5-pairs of chromosomes divide-stage 6-chromosomes divide
  • Meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells. Unlike mitosis, meiosis is a reduction division – the chromosome number is halved from diploid (46 chromosomes in 23 pairs in humans) to haploid (23 chromosomes in humans).
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selective breeding

Selective breeding or artificial selection is when humans breed plants and animals for particular genetic characteristics. Humans have bred food crops from wild plants and domeSelective breeding takes place over many generations. These are the main steps for both plants and animals involve:Decide which characteristics are important enough to select.1]Choose parents that show these characteristics from a mixed population. They are bred together.2]Choose the best offspring with the desired characteristics to produce the next generation.3]Repeat the process continuously over many generations, until all offspring show the desired characteristics.sticated animals for thousands of years.

  • benefits-new varieties may be economically important, by producing more or better quality food
  • animals can be selected that cannot cause harm, for example cattle without horns
  • risks-reduced genetic variation can lead to attack by specific insects or disease, which could be extremely destructive
  • rare disease genes can be unknowingly selected as part of a positive trait, leading to problems with specific organisms, eg a high percentage of Dalmatian dogs are deaf
  • can create physical problems in specific organisms, eg large dogs can have faulty hips due to not being formed correctly
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genetic engineering diagram

Image result for genetic engineering gcse biology"              

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genetic engineering

          Genetic modification (GM, also called genetic engineering) involves taking a gene from one species and putting it into another species. It involves these steps:

  • selection of the desired characteristic
  • isolation of the gene responsible for the characteristic
  • insertion of the gene into another organism
  • replication of the transgenic organism
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negative feedback

A negative feedback mechanism is an important type of control that is found in homeostasis. It responds when conditions change from the ideal or set point and returns conditions to this set point. There is a continuous cycle of events in negative feedback.

General stages in negative feedback

  • In general this works in the following way:
  • if the level of something rises, control systems reduce it again
  • if the level of something falls, control systems raise it again

negative feedback example-

Body temperature is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. If the hypothalamus detects that the body is too hot, the response is that the body begins to sweat to try and reduce the temperature back to the correct level. Once the body temperature is back to the correct level, sweating will stop. In the opposite way, if the hypothalamus detects that the body is too cold then the response is that the body begins to shiver to try and raise the temperature back to the correct level. Once the body temperature is back to the correct level the shivering will stop.

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sexual reproduction

The advantages of sexual [two parents]reproduction:

  • it produces variation in the offspring
  • the species can adapt to new environments due to variation, which gives them a survival advantage
  • a disease is less likely to affect all the individuals in a population
  • humans can speed up natural selection through selective breeding, which can be used, for example, to increase food production.

The disadvantages of sexual reproduction:

  • time and energy are needed to find a mate
  • it is not possible for an isolated individual

 

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asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction only involves one parent so there is no joining of sex cells during fertilisation. Organisms produced by asexual reproduction are genetically identical to each other and their parent. They are clones.

  • The advantages of asexual reproduction include:the population can increase rapidly when the conditions are favourable
  • only one parent is needed
  • it is more time and energy efficient as you don't need a mate
  • it is faster than sexual reproduction.

The disadvantages of asexual reproduction include:

  • it does not lead to variation in a population
  • the species may only be suited to one habitat
  • disease may affect all the individuals in a population
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genetic inheritance 1

A gamete is a sex cell. In humans, gametes are sperm and eggs (ovums). DNA is a large and complex polymer, which is made up of two strands forming a double helix. DNA determines the characteristics of a living organism. With the exception of identical twins, each person's DNA is unique.

Chromosomes are contained inside the cell's nucleus. These are long threads of DNA, which are made up of many genes.

A gene is a small section of DNA on a chromosome, that code for a particular sequence of amino acids, to make a specific protein. It is the unit of heredity, and may be copied and passed on to the next generation.

Some characteristics are controlled by a single gene, such as fur in animals and red-green colour blindness in humans. Each gene might have different forms, and these are called alleles. The diagram shows the relationship between the cell, its nucleus, chromosomes in the nucleus, and genes.

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genetic inheritance 2

Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a body cell in pairs. One chromosome is inherited from the mother and one is inherited from the father. The chromosome in each pair carries the same gene in the same location. These genes could be the same, or different versions.

Alleles are different versions of the same gene. For example, the gene for eye colour has an allele for blue eye colour and an allele for brown eye colour. For any gene, a person may have the same two alleles, known as homozygous or two different ones, known as heterozygous.

The genotype is the collection of alleles that determine characteristics and can be expressed as a phenotype.

A dominant allele is always expressed, even if one copy is present. Dominant alleles are represented by a capital letter, for example, A. The allele for brown eyes is dominant. You only need one copy of this allele to have brown eyes. Two copies will still give you brown eyes.

A recessive allele is only expressed if the individual has two copies and does not have the dominant allele of that gene. Recessive alleles are represented by a lower case letter, for example, a. The allele for blue eyes is recessive. You need two copies of this allele to have blue eyes.

Homozygous alleles are both identical for the same characteristic, for example AA or aa.

Heterozygous alleles are both different for the same characteristic, for example Aa.

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genome and DNA

The genetic material in the nucleus of a cell is made up of a chemical called DNA. DNA is a polymer, made of many smaller units called nucleotides. A nucleotide is made of a sugar and a phosphate group, with one of four different bases, A, C, T or G, attached. The nucleotides join together, forming two strands. These, in turn, form a double helix structure. The double helix is held together by weak hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs. Base A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G forming a twisted ladder structure called a double helix. It carries the genetic code, which determines the characteristics of a living organism

The genome is one copy of all an organism's DNA. In humans this is all the DNA that makes up the 23 pairs of chromosomes found in all diploid body cells. That is all the cells except sex cells or gametes, which only have half of a person's genome.

The Human Genome Project, or HGP for short, was started at the end of the last century. It was very ambitious and had several aims, including:

  • to work out the order or sequence of all the three billion base pairs in the human genome
  • to identify all the genes
  • to develop faster methods for sequencing DNA
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sex determination

Sex determination

Inheritance of biological sex-Human body cells have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. Twenty-two pairs are known as autosomes, and control characteristics, but one pair carries genes that determine sex - whether offspring are male or female:males have two different sex chromosomes, X Y.-females have two X chromosomes, **

Chromosomes from a male

Chromosomes from a male, since it contains a Y chromosomeThe X chromosome is the larger chromosome and the Y chromosome is the smaller one.Chromosomes from a female.Females have two X chromosomes

Genetic crosses-A genetic cross, like a Punnett square, shows how the alleles inherited from the parents may combine in a zygote. Mother has 2 x chromosomes, Father has an x and y chromosome.  If the male x and one of the female x chromosomes combine they have a girl, if the x and y chromosomes combine they have a boy.

  • The two possible combinations are:
  • an X chromosome from the mother and an X chromosome from the father - producing a girl (female phenotype from the ** genotype
  • an X chromosome from the mother and a Y chromosome from the father - producing a boy (male phenotype from the XY phenotype)
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genetic disorders

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder of cell membranes that mainly affects the lungs and digestive system. They can become clogged with lots of thick, sticky mucus as too much is produced. Over many years, the lungs become increasingly damaged and may eventually stop working properly. A number of treatments are available to help reduce the problems caused by the condition, but unfortunately average life expectancy is reduced for people who have it.It is caused by a faulty recessive allele on chromosome 7. To be born with cystic fibrosis, a child has to inherit two copies of this faulty gene - one from each of their parents. Their parents will not usually have the condition themselves, because they will only carry one faulty gene and one that works normally.

the recessive allele (lower case), which can be shown as f

the dominant allele (capital letter), which can be shown as F

An individual who is homozygous (ff) with the recessive allele will develop cystic fibrosis. Someone who is heterozygous (Ff) will be a carrier of the recessive allele, but will not develop cystic fibrosis and have no symptoms. Someone who is homozygous with the dominant allele (FF) will not develop cystic fibrosis, as you need two faulty alleles (ff) for the condition. In this combination, no faulty alleles are present.

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eye colour dertermination

There are pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus of a body cell. The chromosomes in a pair carry the same genes in the same places. But there are different versions of the same gene.Different versions of the same gene are called alleles. For example, the gene for eye colour has an allele for blue eye colour and an allele for brown eye colour. For any gene, a person may have the same two alleles or two different ones.

Alleles may be either dominant or recessive:

  • A dominant allele is always expressed, even if the individual only has one copy of it. For example, the allele for brown eyes is dominant. You only need one copy of it to have brown eyes. Two copies will still give you brown eyes.
  • A recessive allele is only expressed if the individual has two copies of it and does not have the dominant allele of that gene. For example, the allele for blue eyes is recessive. You need two copies of this allele to have blue eyes.
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anti-biotic bactreia resisitance1

Since Penicillin was discovered in 1928, the use of antibiotics for the treatment of diseases has increased exponentially. Antibiotics are being overused in many ways in our world today.-Problems with antibiotics-Commonly prescribed antibiotics are becoming less effective due to a number of reasons:

  • overuse of antibiotics
  • failing to complete the fully prescribed course by a doctor
  • use of antibiotics in farming
  • These can lead to the effectiveness of antibiotics being reduced, and the incidence of antibiotic resistance increasing. These bacteria are commonly known as superbugs.
  • Overuse-People feel unwell and when going to the doctors, they expect antibiotics to be prescribed. If patients have viral infections, such as the common cold and not a bacterial one, the antibiotics are ineffective and unnecessary.

Failing to complete the course-Patients should always fully complete the prescribed course of antibiotics, every time they are taken. This ensures all bacteria are killed, and so none survive which can subsequently mutate and produce resistant strains.

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antibiotic resistance 2

  • Agricultural use-Previously, antibiotics were regularly used in farming, and these can be used to prevent disease, keep the animals well and allow them to grow quickly. The high use of antibiotics in agriculture may have a cost as it could lead to spread of antibiotic resistance from animals into human hosts. 
  • Ways to reduce antibiotic resistance:
  • Only take antibiotics when necessary.
  • Treat specific bacteria with specific antibiotics.
  • High hospital hygiene levels, including regular hand washing by staff and visitors.
  • Patients who are infected with antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria should be isolated from other patients.
  • The future-The development of new antibiotics stopped years ago, as they were hailed as the solution to a very difficult disease control problem. Some limited success with new antibiotic search has occurred recently. People are concerned that in the near future, some bacteria will be resistant to all known antibiotics.
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extinction

Extinction occurs when there are no remaining individuals of a species alive.Animals that have not adapted well to their environment are less likely to survive and reproduce than those that are well adapted. The animals that have not adapted to their environment may become extinct. Extinction has a role in evolution as some species disappear. Others survive and continue to evolve.

Several factors can cause a species to become extinct. They include:

  • new diseases
  • new predators
  • new, more successful competitors
  • changes to the environment over geological time, such as climate change
  • a single catastrophic event, such as a massive volcanic eruption or a collision between an asteroid and the Earth

A species may also become extinct through speciation.

The fossil record shows that many species have become extinct since life on Earth began. Extinction is still happening and often, it is due to human activities. Humans compete with other living organisms for space, food and water - humans are very successful predators.Dodos lived on Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean. The island was uninhabited and the birds had no natural predators.When Mauritius was colonised by the Dutch in 1638, dodos were hunted for food. They were easy to catch and new competitors were brought onto the island, including pigs, cats and rats. They ate the dodos' eggs and their young. Within 80 years, the dodo was extinct.

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waste management 1

Waste management

As the human population increases, the volume of waste and pollution that is produced also increases. Polluting an ecosystem harms or kills the organisms that live within it.Modern society is more consumable, which means humans manufacture more products and replace them more often. This consumption is not sustainable. Many natural materials, including fossil fuels, will soon run out and scientists argue that there is already too much waste.

Water pollution

In some parts of the world, open sewers can lead into water courses, such as streams and rivers, which can cause serious illness in humans that may drink the contaminated water.Some farmers use too many fertilisers, which can run off fields during heavy rain. This can pollute nearby streams and rivers leading to eutrophication. Some water pollution even comes from toxic chemicals released illegally by factories.

Air pollution

Combustion of fossil fuels and other fuels releases carbon dioxide. This contributes to the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming. It also releases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which can cause acid rain. Air pollution can also be caused by tiny particulates from smoke which can cause smog. Some of the world's major cities like Delhi in India and Karachi in Pakistan have dangerously high levels of air pollution.

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waste management 2

Land pollution

The rubbish we throw out that is not recycled goes into a land fill. These are huge holes in the ground into which our rubbish is dumped. Some things like batteries cannot be put into landfill sites because of the toxic chemicals they contain. They must be recycled. Other land pollution comes when some people dump rubbish in public or other private places, often to avoid paying for it to be disposed of. This is called fly tipping and is illegal.

Land use

The larger the human population gets, the more land we require. More houses must be built, more resources found, more food must be grown and more waste is produced. This often means less space and fewer resources for other animals and plants.Often biodiversity is significantly reduced when land is cleared for human uses, such as building, quarrying, farming and waste disposal. Think about the reduction in biodiversity, which occurs when an area of rainforest is cut down to grow crops.

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sampling quadrats

Using quadrats in sampling

Quadrats are square frames of wire usually 0.25 m2. They may contain further wires to mark off smaller areas inside, such as 5 cm × 5 cm or 10 cm × 10 cm squares.These are placed on the ground to look at the plants or slow-moving animals within them. When looking at plants in a quadrat, the following sampling can be used:

Number of an individual species - the total number of individuals of one species (eg daisies) is recorded.

Species richness - the number of different plant or animal species is recorded but not the number of individuals within a species.

Percentage cover - the percentage of the quadrat area that is covered by one species (eg grass). This is easier to estimate if a quadrat has wires making smaller sections. Percentage cover rather than number of individuals is used when estimating plant frequencies if it is difficult to identify individual plants, such as grasses or moss.

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sampling quadrats 2

random sampling using a quadrat involves the placing of quadrats at random coordinates. Regardless of whether you are investigating the number of individual species, the diversity of species or the percentage cover in different areas, you would use random sampling.

systematic sampling can be used if there is a trend or pattern across the habitat, such as distance up a beach, or altitude on a hillside. If you are using the wrong kind of sampling method for your experiment, this can lead to biased results.

Random sampling using quadrats-Sampling of the area you are studying must be random. It must show no bias – for instance, choosing to sample where there are lots of plants.

When you have chosen a sampling area, first divide it up into a grid, for instance, having 10 × 10 divisions.

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sampling quardrtas 3

Use a suitable method – you could draw numbers out of a hat – to generate a pair of random coordinates on your grid.

Place the first quadrat on your grid using these coordinates.

Count the number of different species within this quadrat (the species richness).

Repeat steps 1-4 so that you have a total of at least 10 counts.

Using quadrats and transects in systematic sampling

Sometimes we want to see if the number of species or percentage cover changes within an area. This is often as a result of a change in an abiotic factor such as soil pH.

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sampling quardrats 4

A quadrat could be placed at regular distances, for example every five metres, along an imaginary line called a transect, which would run down the shore. Systematic sampling would be used along the transect to link changes in species to abiotic factors, such as immersion by water, temperature fluctuations and light intensity, all of which are influenced by the tide.

The results from transects can be drawn into kite diagrams. The width of the bar from the middle at any distance shows how many individuals were observed at that point

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producers,decomposers.consumers

A food chain shows what eats what in a particular habitat. It shows the flow of energy and materials from one organism to the next, beginning with a producer.

The Sun is the ultimate source of energy for most communities of living things. Green plants are usually the producers in a food chain.Producers are organisms that make their own organic nutrients (food) - usually using energy from sunlight. Green plants make their food by photosynthesis. The other organisms in a food chain are consumers, because they all get their energy by consuming other organisms.

The example above contains lots of information. Here are three food chains from it:

oak tree → squirrel → fox

oak tree → earthworm → wood mouse → fox

oak tree → earthworm → wood mouse → owl

 

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producers 2

The oak trees are the producers. Squirrels and earthworms are primary consumers, and the wood mice are secondary consumers. The foxes and owls are tertiary consumers (the foxes are also secondary consumers).

Foxes and owls eat the wood mice, and foxes eat wood mice and squirrels. The fungi and earthworms are decomposers in this food web.

habitats- have limited supplies of the resources needed by plants and animals. Therefore, plants and animals may need to compete with one another for food, water, space and mates in order to survive.

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carbon cycle

  • A balanced carbon cycle is essential.Carbon is a major component in carbohydrates, fats and proteins.The carbon cycle involves the exchange of carbon between living organisms (biotic) and their atmosphere (abiotic).In the carbon cycle, carbon is constantly removed from, and returned to, the environment.Processes involved in the carbon cycle are:Photosynthesis – plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and form it into sugar, starch and other organic compounds. This is the only process in the cycle that decreases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • Feeding – moves carbon in the form of biological molecules along the food chain.
  • Respiration – when living organisms (plants, animals and decomposers) respire they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (this is a form of excretion).
  • Fossilisation – if conditions are not favourable for the process of decomposition, dead organisms decay slowly or not at all. These organisms build up and, if compressed over millions of years, can form fossil fuels (coal, oil or gas).
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carbon cycle 2

  • Combustion – the burning of fossil fuels releases stored carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
  • Excretion – when waste is removed from the body (urine). This excreted material can be broken down during the process of decomposition.
  • Egestion – the removal of faeces from an animal that will contain carbon. This egested material can be broken down during the process of decomposition.
  • Decomposition – when complex, carbon compounds in dead organisms, urine and faeces are broken down into simpler carbon compounds by bacteria or fungi.
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water cycle

The water cycle is also known as the hydrological cycle. It describes how water moves on, above, or just below the surface of our planet.Water molecules move between various locations - such as rivers, oceans and the atmosphere - by specific processes. Water can change state.

Evaporation-Energy from the Sun heats the Earth’s surface and water evaporates from oceans, rivers and lakes. The warm air rises, carrying water vapour with it.

Transpiration from plants releases water vapour into the air.

Condensation-The moist air cools down as it rises. Water vapour condenses back into liquid water, and this condensation process produces clouds.

Precipitation-As the water droplets in the cloud get bigger and heavier, they begin to fall as rain, snow and sleet. This is called precipitation (it is not the same as precipitation in Chemistry).

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deforstation

People have been cutting down trees for thousands of years, for example:

  • to clear land for farming and building
  • for wood to use as a fuel or building material
  • Forestry is sustainable as long as trees are replaced, either naturally or because of replanting. When this is not done, the area covered by forest decreases.

 deforstation-has some important consequences:

  • forest habitats are destroyed
  • soil erosion increases, causing barren land, flooding and land slides
  • air pollution is caused when trees are burned after felling

Loss of biodiversity-The loss of forests reduces biodiversity. This creates a risk of losing organisms that might have been useful in the future, for example as sources of new medicines. There is also a moral responsibility to look after the planet and its resources.

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global warming

Carbon dioxide-There is increasing evidence that the level of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere is rising. There is also evidence that humans are responsible for this rise.There is more carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere because:

  • The increased combustion of fossil fuels has released more carbon dioxide.
  • Increased deforestation has reduced the amount of carbon dioxide being removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis.
  • The greenhouse effect-Greenhouse gases (like carbon dioxide) form a blanket around the Earth’s atmosphere.This ‘greenhouse blanket’ allows heat from the Sun to enter the atmosphere but then traps it.This is causing the Earth’s temperature to increase and is known as global warming.
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global warming 2

Effects of global warming

  • A melting glacier
  • Melting polar ice caps

How to reduce the effects of global warming

  • Planting more trees and reducing deforestation to absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
  • Burning fewer fossil fuels by using alternative fuels in order to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide entering the atmosphere.
  • Being more energy efficient to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide entering the atmosphere
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land use

land use

The larger the human population gets, the more land we require. More houses must be built, more resources found, more food must be grown and more waste is produced. This often means less space and fewer resources for other animals and plants.Often biodiversity is significantly reduced when land is cleared for human uses, such as building, quarrying, farming and waste disposal. Think about the reduction in biodiversity, which occurs when an area of rainforest is cut down to grow crops.

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chapter 1.1 the trinity

  • the belief that there is one god that exist in three persons,god the father,god the son,and god the holy spirit.the nicene creed statement of belief that christians read in church.god the father is the creator of the universe the son is jesus christ who is the son of the father and the holy spirit is the spirit who helps people know and worship god
  • the trinity is not mentioned in the biblbe but there is one event where all three appear all at once this is when jesus is being baptised.with the fathers approval and the holy spirit begins his work.
  • god the father-the father is the creator cares for all that he has made and that he is all powerful
  • god the son-christians believe that jesus is there saviour friend and role model he came in this world to teach people a life of goodness love and faith.a core belief is that he took all the sins of humanity with him
  • god the holy spirit-the holy spirit is their comforter and guide they believe not only does it live in thier hearts rather enables to lead good lives and make good moral choices 
  • matthew 3:13-17
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chapter 1.2-creation

  • day 1-heavens,earth,light and dark-day 2-water and sky-day 3-land and plant life-day 4-sun,moon and stars-day 5-fish and birds-day 6-land animals and humans
  • metaphorical view-story to help peopel understand that god is the creator of all things-literal view - ctrationist belive that the bible should be interpreted in the lieteral way as it is the word of god.
  • the word-the word is jesus as they believ that jeuss was with father at the start of the universe so that he is the source of life also the spirit was part of the creation as he was hovering over the words 
  • when adam and eve ate from the forbidden tree the relationship of trust broke,so god sent them out of the garden of eden and ordered them to work on the ground today they believe that they have a personal and loving realtionship with god for guidance as god has given the oppurtunity to care for creation.
  • god has given responsebilty to humans to look after the world and have authority over animals and plants etc they should care for the environment so it can be passed on to future generations' 
  • genesis:1-3
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chapter 1.3-incarnation

  • god the son came down to live on the earth so he came in a human form.jesus came in this world to show peopel what god was like and enable them to have a reltionship with them
  • incartion is important is important to them because it allows them to have a reltionship with god.incarnation shows that god loves the world and the poeple in it this is what they celebrate in christmas 
  • christians believe that as a human jesus can understand humanity and its problems
  • john 1-18
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chapter 1.4-the last days of jesus life

  • jesus last supper he told his disciples about his forthcoming death and he taught them to serve each other and told him that the bread was his body and the wine his blood and he told them that after he was gone he would send the holy spirit to remind peopel of what he taught and he also knew who would betray him.
  • jesus and his followers spent a night in a farden where the traitor came with the police and identified jesus by kissing him the jewish thought it was a huge crime to say that you are the son of god so they sentenced him to death
  • for christians jesuss death was a sign of him being human which proofs he was gods incarnate,his death was a sacrifice for humanitys sins christians name this good friday which they celebrte by singing and prayers 
  • the third day he died he resurrected making the christains believe that he is god as he overcame death,christains believe that if they follow jesus they will have a eternal life and be reunited with god
  • when jesus rose from the dead he told them that he is going to heaven and that the holy spirit is gonna come help them spread the word of god 
  • luke:22-24
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1.5-salvation

  • jesus came to save humanity of sin and its consequences.christains believe that god sent jesus and killed him so that who ever believed in him would have a good reletionship with god.christians believe those who are away from the love of god is beacuse of their sins,they believe that they must turn away from sin in order to be saved 
  • christians believe as jesus saved to save humanity of sin the relationship between god and humans is restored this is known as atonement 
  • jesus death allows humans to have  eternal life.they repatedly repent for thier sins and beacuse of jesus they believe that they are forgiven 
  • john 3:10-21
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chapter 1.6-christain eschatology

  • eschatology-an area of christain teachings about life after death.after a person dies they have a immortal soul and this soul depending on there deeds they will go to heaven or hell.the word universalism means that because of gods love and mercy everyone will go to heaven.many christains beleive in purgotory a place where the souls of the dead are cleansed and prepared for heaven 
  • heaven is  a place where people believe that they will spend there afetrlife it is not mentioned in detail in the bible but some peopel believe it as a physical place whereas others think of it as spritually.the bible teaches that heaven is a place for everlasting peace and joy.hell is a place where people go to be punished and are seperated from god.
  • Christians veleive in the day of judgement where god will judeg as to who will go heaven and hell aslo believe in the second coming of jesus 
  • resurrection is certainn for the christains as the afterlife was confirmed when jesus came from the dead.jesus himself taught those who believe in him will have a afterlife.life after daeth is a reward for faithful people it also offers hope for the future also allows them to be with god forever
  • Corinthians:5:1-10
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1.7-the problem of evil

  • there are two characteristics of gods nature that are very important.all powerful and all loving.there are two main reasons as to why evil and suffering happen in this world natural which is beyond human control and moral evil them actions that cause harm to othersthe existence of evil and suffering is the main reason why peopel question there belive in god as if god is all loving and all powerful all at the same time it seems logical that he should prevent all the suffering in the world since evil and suffering do exist people are led to beleive that god is not
  • psalm :103
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1.8-divergent solutions to evil

  • biblical solutions-suufering is part of life one should trust god and in the end all should turn out well.they should praise god in times of trouble.god does not always stop suffering people still experince suffering it can be hard to trust god when things are not going well
  • theoratical solutions-evil and suffering can be a cause to human free will in the midst of evil and suffering there are always opprutunites to do good.god created the universe so he should be responible for the evil.people dont respond well in times of suffering
  • practical response-humans have a responsibility to deal with things practically like developing good qualities or helping people make this world a good space 
  • psalms 119
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