Attentional Control

All aspects of A2 OCR book

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How can selective attention be increased?
Warning cues (e.g get set) and high stimulus intensity
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What is cognition?
Aquring, learning and understanding new knowledge
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What is arousal?
The level of excitement created by te central nervous system
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What can low arousal cause a performer to be?
Lethargic
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What is the inverted U theory based on?
Cue Utilisation
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According to Cue Utilisation, what happens when arousal is too low?
The perceptual field is very broad, and there is an overload of sensory stimuli, making decision making very hard.
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What happens at the optimum arousal level?
Selective attention is at its best and concentration is maximised
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Accoring to the Cue Utilisation theory, what is the term for over arousal and what are the effects?
Hypervigilance, the performer will panic and feel discomfort and therefore may miss vital cues
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What is the criticism of the Cue Utilisation theory?
It does not tell us how we can change our arousal
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What are the two sections of Nideffers model of attentioanl styles?
Width of attention, direction of attention
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How can external focus help a marathon runner?
It can help them not to notice fatigue
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Why is Nideffers model important to performers?
As they must adopt the correct attentional style in order to notice correct cues
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What are the three factors that determine someones optimum arousal point?
Personality, task complexity, ability
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How does task complexity affect optimum arousal levels?
High arousal for simple gross skills
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How does ability affect optimum arousal levels?
The better ability a performer has, the higher their optimum arousal
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What is anxiety?
Feelings of worry and nervousness caused by a negative state of mind caused by high arousal
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What is cognitive anxiety?
Negative thoughts, worry and nerves
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What is somatic anxiety?
High Blood pressure and heart rate caused by cognitive anxiety
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What is state anxiety?
A temporary anxiety caused by the performer feeling that the situation is threatening
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What is trait anxiety?
General disposition of anxiety, part of personality
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What is stress?
A trigger that stimulates anxiety and arousal when a performer feels they cannot cope
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Name 3 stressors
Conflict, Competition and Frustration
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What does the Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning state?
Every individual has an optimum zone of anxiety that they prefer
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Who tends to have lower IZOF's?
Team players
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What is the rare feeling of happiness and self-fullfilment that an athlete might feel?
Peak Flow Experience
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When does a performer feel this peak flow?
When they have high somatic arousal and low cognitive anxiety
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How does a performer feel if they have high somatic arousal and high cognitive anxiety?
Anxious and angry
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If a performer has Low Cognitive anxiety and Low somatic arousal, how will they feel?
Lethargic and drousy
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If a performer has high cognitive anxiety but low somatic arousal, how will they feel?
Bored and fatigued
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What other factors increase peak flow?
Prefffered leadership, high confidence, reaching a goal, environmentally comfortable, correct attentional style, concentration (cue utilisation), group cohesion
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What is Bio Feedback?
Measuring the performers blood pressur, heart rate etc. when they are anxious is thought to help them be able to control these factors later and be calmer
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What are advantages of Bio Feedback?
It is proven to work
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What are the limitations of Bio Feedback?
Everyone has varying heart rates etc., you must know whether the performer is already aroused or not, takes time and equipment so not practical before a performance
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What is Progressive Muscular Relaxation?
Where a performer isometrically contracts their muscles and then slowly relaxes them in turn
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What is the benefit of PMR?
It is proven to work
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What is the limitation of PMR?
It should be done alongside other methods, it takes around half an our which may be too long for before a game
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What are the two types of imagery?
External and internal
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What is the limitation of external imagery?
The performer must be of a high ability to picture the whole scene
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What is the benefit of internal imagery?
It also stimulates the nervous system to act in the same way it would during muscle contraction, helping the performer to gain a kinasthesis and can also lift confidence
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What is the limitation of internal imagery?
A cognitive performer may imagine the skill wrong and therefore gain kinasthesis for the wrong movement
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What is the limitation of thought stopping?
Someone with learned helplessness may find it hard to do so
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What is the limitation of positive self talk?
It is only effective in experienced performers
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What is rational thinking?
Using internal narrow attention to think of reasonable outcomes
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What is the limitation of rational thinking?
Inexperienced performers may not be able to think rationally
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is cognition?

Back

Aquring, learning and understanding new knowledge

Card 3

Front

What is arousal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can low arousal cause a performer to be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the inverted U theory based on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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chris

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You can't even spell. Just give up on making tests.

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