Atomic structure

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Describe the difference between endothermic and exothermic reactions.
Endothermic is where energy is taken in from its surroundings. Exothermic is where energy is given out.
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What sub-atomic particles do you find in the nucleus of an atom?
Protons + Neutrons
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What are the 3 sub-atomic particles?
Protons + Neutrons + Electrons
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What are the noble gases best known for?
Being very un reactive non-metals
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What are the Alkali metals best known for?
Being VERY reactive metals
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What are the elements in group 7 called?
The Halogens
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What is the name of the elements in group 1?
Alkali metals
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In what way are the elements that are in the same group similar?
They react in the same way to the same elements
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What is the name of a vertical column of elements in the periodic table?
A group
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How can an element be tested to see if it is a metal or a non-metal?
Test if it can conduct electricity
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What elements can conduct electricity?
All metals + graphite
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Where are the electrons located in an atom?
In the outer shells
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What are the charges of each sub-atomic particle?
Protons= positive. Electrons= negative. Neutrons= have no charge.
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Why are atoms neutral?
Because there is always an equal number of protons as there are electrons so the charges cancel each other out.
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What is the atomic number?
The number of protons that an element has
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What is the mass number?
The number of protons + the number of neutrons
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How can the number of neutrons in an atom be calculated?
The mass minus the atomic number
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What can be said about the groups in the periodic table and the number of electrons in their outer shells?
All the elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their out shell. E.g. Group 1 all have 1 electron in their outer shell... Etc
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What are isotopes?
Elements with the same atomic number but a different mass (number of electrons)
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What types of substances usually join together to form ionic compounds?
Metals + Non-metals
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What can be said about the strength of metallic bonding?
Strong
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What types of elements usually form covalent compounds?
Non-metals
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What is a covalent bond?
Where 2 atoms share a pair of electrons to form full outer shells
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What is the maximum no. of electrons that each of the 1st 3 electron shells can hold?
1st shell = 2. 2nd shell = 8. 3rd shell = 8.
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What type of bonding is found in a molecule?
Covalent
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What info does the formula of a covalent network give you?
The ratio
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Name 1 compound with a covalent network structure.
Diamond
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What info do you get from the formula of an ionic compound?
The ratio of atoms
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What are the Halogens best known for?
Being very reactive non-metals.
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What is the name of a horizontal column of elements in the periodic table?
A period
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What is the relative atomic mass of an element?
The average mass of an atom in a naturally occurring sample of the element
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What holds atoms together in covalent bonding?
Electrostatic attraction
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What is the name of the elements in group 8?
Noble gases
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What are the gases that make up our air and their percentages?
Nitrogen=78%. Oxygen=21%. Carbon dioxide=0.037%. Argon=0.9%. Other gases=the rest%
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What is a molecule?
2 or more atoms joined together
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What is a diatomic molecule?
A molecule made up of 2 atoms
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What are the 7 diatomic molecules?
Dr. Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2 = Bromine, Iodine, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Florine
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What is the electron arrangement for Sulfur (group 6)
2,8,6
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What shape are diatomic molecules?
Linear
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What is the shape of the 3 atom molecule of water (H2O)?
Bent
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What is the shape of the 4 atom molecule of nitrogen hydride (ammonia)
Pyramid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What sub-atomic particles do you find in the nucleus of an atom?

Back

Protons + Neutrons

Card 3

Front

What are the 3 sub-atomic particles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the noble gases best known for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the Alkali metals best known for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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