AQA A Level Mechanism and Conditions Summary

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ALKANE -> HALOALKANE
Br2, Cl2; UV light; Free Radical Sub.
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HALOALKANE -> ALCOHOL
KOH AQUEOUS; heat under reflux; Nucleophilic Sub.
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HALOALKANE -> ALKENE
KOH ALCOHOLIC; heat under reflux; Elimination
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HALOALKANE -> NITRILE
KCN in ETHANOL; heat under reflux; Nucleophilic Sub.
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HALOALKANE -> Primary AMINE
Alcoholic NH3; heat under pressure; Nucleophilic Sub.
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NITRILE -> Primary AMINE
LiAlH4 in ETHER; REDUCTION
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ALKENE -> HALOALKANE
HBr, HCl; room temp; Eletrophilic Add.
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ALKENE -> DIHALOALKANE
Br2, Cl2; room temp; Electrophilic Add.
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DIHALOALKANE -> DIOL
KOH aqueous; heat under reflux; Nucleophilic Sub.
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Primary AMINE -> Secondary/Tertiary AMINE/Quarternary SALT
Haloalkane; Nucleophilic Subsitution
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Primary AMINE -> Secondary AMIDE
Acy chloride; room temp; Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination
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ALKENE -> poly(ALKENE)
high pressure; catalyst
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ALKENE -> ALCOHOL
1) H2SO4; Electrophilic Addition 2) H2O; warm; Hydrolysis
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ALCOHOL -> ALKENE
conc. H2SO4/ conc. H3PO4; Elimination, Dehydration
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ALCOHOL -> ESTER
Carboxylic Acid + H2SO4; heat; ESTERIFICATION
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ALCOHOL -> ALDEHYDE
(primary alcohol only) Na2Cr2O7/H+; heat & distil; PARTIAL OXIDATION
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ALCOHOL -> KETONE
(secondary alcohol only) Na2Cr2O7; heat; OXIDATION
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ALDEHYDE -> ALCOHOL
NaBH4; Reduction; Nucleophilic Add
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KETONE -> ALCOHOL
NaBH4; Reduction; Nucleophilic Add
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ALDEHYDE or KETONE -> HYDROXYNITRILE
NaCN + H2SO4; Nucleophilic Add
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ALDEHYDE -> CARBOXYLIC ACID
(primary alcohol only) Na2Cr2O7/H+; heat under reflux + excess oxidising agent; OXIDATION
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CARBOXYLIC ACID -> ESTER
Alcohol + H2SO4; heat; ESTERIFICATION
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ACYL CHLORIDE/ACID ANHYDRIDE -> Primary AMIDE
NH3; room temp; Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination
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ACYL CHLORIDE/ACID ANHYDRIDE -> Secondary AMIDE
Primary Amine; room temp; Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination
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ACYL CHLORIDE/ACID ANHYDRIDE -> ESTER
Alcohol; room temp; Nucleophilic Add/Elimination
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ACYL CHLORIDE/ACID ANHYDRIDE -> CARBOXYLIC ACID
H2O; room temp; Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination
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Esters and Amides can be hydrolysed by ____ and ____
NaOH and acids
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

HALOALKANE -> ALCOHOL

Back

KOH AQUEOUS; heat under reflux; Nucleophilic Sub.

Card 3

Front

HALOALKANE -> ALKENE

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

HALOALKANE -> NITRILE

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

HALOALKANE -> Primary AMINE

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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