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Addition polymers
be able to draw the repeating unit of addition polymers from monomer structures and vice versa
Condensation polymers
understand that condensation polymers may be formed by reactions between dicarboxylic
acids and diols, between dicarboxylic acids and diamines and between amino acids
Ethandioic acid
1,4 dicarboxylic acid
1…read more

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Dicarboxylic acids and diols react together
to produce polyesters with the repeating
unit, COO. A molecule of water is also
released. Terylene is a polyester made
from the combination of ethane, 1,2 diol
and benzene, 1,4 dicarboxylic acid.
Ethane 1,2 diol
Making a polyester.…read more

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Terylene) and polyamides (e.g. nylon 6,6 and Kevlar)
Polyamides have the amide
linkage, CONH repeated. To
make polyamides a
diaminoalkane and a
dicarboxylic acid have to react.
The general equation for making a polyamide Hexane 1,6dioic acid reacts
with hexane, 1,6 diamine to
produce Nylon, 6,6.…read more

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Although they are called polyalkenes they are actually
saturated molecules and therefore have no bond polarity and
are chemically inert. They are very difficult to react unless
there is UV light present to split the molecules.They are not
biodegradable and pose an environmental problem.
understand that polyesters and polyamides can be broken down by hydrolysis and are, therefore, biodegradable
Polyesters react slowly with
acids but faster with bases
such as NaOH.
Polyamides react fast with
acids but slow with bases.…read more

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Bonding in polymers
The biggest difference between
a) The density and strength of addition polymers varies. They depend to a addition and condensation
extent on the length of the hydrocarbon chain, but depend much more polymers is that addition
strongly on the nature and extent of the branching on the chain. Polymers polymers are non polar and
which have very few branches are very compact and the chains can thus condensation polymers are polar.
pack together very efficiently: i.e.…read more

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Method Advantage Disadvantage
Buried Cheap and Easy Requires large areas of land
Stops build up of landfill sites Methane released as the waste decomposes
Leaks can contaminate water supplies
Burned The heat can be used to generate Process has to be carefully controlled to
electricity reduce toxic gas
Waste gases due to combustion can CO2 will still contribute to greenhouse
be neutralised effect
appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of recycling polymers
Advantages Disadvantages
They can be re-used Crude oil used during process
Decrease of amount…read more

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SUMMARY OF POLYMER FORMATION AND HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS
Type of reaction Mechanism
1. Addition polymerisation (alkenes polyalkenes) Free radical
conditions: high temperature, Ziegle-Natte catalyst
addition
equation: (not required)
n C C C C
n
2.…read more

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O
O
O O
HO C R1 C
+ 2n NaOH n C R1 C + n HO R2 OH +H O 2
n/a
O R2 O H
Na+ O- O- Na+
n
b) polyamides
reagents: HCl(aq)
conditions: heat
equation:
H H
O O
O O
R1 C
+ + -
+ n Cl-H
HO C
N R2 N H
+ (2n-1) H2O + 2n HCl n C R1 C N R2 N H Cl
H H HO OH
n
H H
8…read more

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Recall that alkenes can form addition polymers and draw
structures for polymers given the monomer and vice versa
b) Recall that diacid chlorides or diacids can react with diols or
diamines to form condensation polymers, draw the repeating units of
polyesters and polyamides and know the structures of terylene and nylon
66
c) Understand how condensation polymers can be hydrolysed and
understand the advantages and disadvantages of this
d) Understand that polyamides can form intermolecular and
intramolecular hydrogen bonds and know the implications of this…read more

Comments

Torreslionel

Amazing. 

Thanks for sharing

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