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Page 1

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Aci
ds,
Bases
and
Buf
fer
s

Def
ini
ng aci
ds and
bases

A
BronstedLow r
y aci
d i
s a
substance
which
donates
protons
in
a react
ion.
(
a pr
oton donor
).

Aci
ds ar
e subst
ances whi
ch
produce
hydrogen
ions
in
solut…

Page 2

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T he
c oncent
rati
on of
water
i
s constant
and i
s
incorporat
ed i
nto
a mo di
fi
ed equi
li
bri
um con stant
Kw
whe r
e Kw =
Kc x

H 2O.
14
T his
me ans
Kw
(the
ioni
c pr
o…

Page 3

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Et
ha noi
c aci
d r
eacts
w i
th
w at
er
to
produce
hydroxoni
um ions
and et
hanoat
e i
ons,
but
si
nce
the
back
react
ion
is
mor
e
s
u ccessf
ul
than
the
forward
one,
the
ions
react
ver
y easi
l…

Page 4

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2
Ka
=
[H+] /
0.
1 [H+]

[
H+ ]
=
squ are
ro ot
(1.7
x 105 x
0.1)
= 1.
3 x
10 3
mo l
dm 3

pH =
2.89

pKa

F or a
w eak aci
d we of
ten r
efer
to
pKa.
p…

Page 5

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T here
a r
e al
so very
steep port
ions
o f
each
cu r
ve except
for
the weak aci
d and weak base where a
singl
e drop
of
a ci
d or

base changes t
he pH by several
uni
ts.

T o add
a ci…

Page 6

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T he pr
ese nce
of
a
Bronsted Lowry
ba se
me ans t
he
pH
at
e qui
valence i
s on
the
b asi
c si
de of
neutr
al
A t
the
start
of
t
h e
ti
tr
a t
ion,
f
o r
a
w…

Page 7

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Concentr
a t
ions
an d
volume s
of
reacti
on s
for
aci
d s
and bases

Examp l
e 1

24.
8cm3 of
0.
2 2
mo l
d m 2 sol
uti
on of
B a(
O H)2 ar
e requi
red t
o neut
rali
se…

Page 8

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Examp l
e 2

Calcul
ate
the pH i
n t
he ti
tr
ati
on of
16cm3 of
0.16mo l
dm 3
solut
ion
of
N aOH
at
the
po i
nt
w hen
12cm3
of
0.1
mo ldm 3
solut
ion
of
H2S O4 have been added.

The…

Page 9

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T he vol
ume of
t
it
rant
a dded t
o gi
ve a hydrogen concentr
ati
on such t
ha t
[
H I
n]
= [I
n ]
i
s call
ed t
he
end poi
n t
of
t
he
ti
tr
ati
o n.

T…

Page 10

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St
rong
acid
and weak base















I t
is
obvious
that
phenol
phthal
ein
w oul
d be
complet
ely
useless.

H ow ever
,
me t
hyl
orange
star
ts
to
chan ge
fr
om yel
low t
owards or
ange ver
y c
lose
to
the
equi
val…

Comments

Annabel

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WOW this is amazing!

Aysha Aslam

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These notes are absolutley amazing!! Thank you so much

asha

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Thanks for these notes, they are really good.

lalalalayla

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Absolutely perfect. Thank you so much. You're the best XD

Kate

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I wish I'd found this before I had 4 days left haha

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