Summary Of Organic Reactions, AQA, A2 Chemistry

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Aldehydes and Keytones
oxidation (aldheydes only): aldehyde  carboxylic acid
reagents: potassium dichromate in sulphuric acid
conditions: warm under reflux

observation: orange to green
mechanism: n/a

To distinguish between aldehydes and keytones:
add fehlings solution and heat
observation: blue solution to brick red precipitate
add tollens' reagent and heat
observation: colourless solution to silver mirror  

reduction: carbonyl   alcohol
reagents: NaBH4 (aq) 
conditions: room temperature
mechanism: nucleophilic addition  

addition of HCN: carbonyl   hydroxynitrile
reagents: NaCN and HCl (aq)
conditions: room temperature
mechanism: nucleophilic addition    

Carboxylic Acids and their Salts
1, acid-base
a) carboxylic acids with sodium hydroxide
reagent: NaOH
conditions: room temperature
mechanism: n/a  

b) carboxylic acids with sodium carbonate
reagent: Na2CO3

conditions: room temperature
mechanism: n/a  

2. esterification
reagents: any alcohol, concentrated sulphuric acid catalyst
mechanism: nucleophilic addition/ elimination (not required)    

a) acid hydrolysis
reagents: concentrated H2SO4
conditions: heat under reflux

mechanism: n/a  

b) alkaline hydrolysis (saponification)
reagent: NaOH (aq)
conditions: heat under


Chester Blackburn

Hold tite your social life making this...


nice notes thanx :)

Waad Abdalla

marry me?


sorry but for quaternary ammonium salt you have put its reagents as secondary amine but its tertiary amine. I feel so mean pointing this out but like just in case someone learns it and has it in the exam or something sorry 

Uman Nulla

Nice stuff


Love you!!!! you saved my life......Really nice notes

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