AQA Geography - relationships, connections, meaning and representation

How are places dynamic?
it's meaning and reality are always changing. places can be changed by economic, demographic, cultural, political and environmental forces.
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What is ‘Place Identity’?
Place identity is concerned with the meaning and significance of the place to the people who live their and its users. It is how people experience a place and the meanings they give to it.
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John Montgomery’s triangle of place identity
A theory by John Montgomery shows the 3 elements that contribute to a sense and place and thus will determine a part of place identity. Activity, Physical setting and Meaning
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example of a place with Multiple Identities?
Gandy Street. Gandy street is considered cool with its musical roots – Coldplay and Muse performed in the Caravan Club before becoming famous Gandy Street is considered wealthy with high end shops opened here e.g. Bang and Olsfen. Harry Potter.
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How can place identity be changed?
Place identity can be changed rapidly as a result of increasing flows of people and culture from one place to another.
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people move from rural to urban areas because they are attracted to better paid jobs and quality of life.
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People move from large cities to smaller villages and commute into the city.
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redevelopment of urban areas that have become run down.
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urban sprawl causes the city to grow and improved transport links mean people can move further out of the city.
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How will suburbanisation affect the inner city?
Clearance in space can improve transport links.Could increase environmental quality – recreational areas can be created. Low quality housing can be cleared and more low-rise buildings can be constructed. Decreased demand for high density, high-rise.
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How will suburbanisation affect the inner city?
Thus, decreased employment in the area = spiral of decline. Communities are split up and buildings are left empty. Area looks run down – not aesthetically pleasing which may deter investment. Decline can occur in the inner city as people move away.
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How will suburbanisation affect the rural-urban fringe? Positives
New facilities and services open up. Increasing employment opportunities outside the CBD. As wealthy people move in there is an increased demand for recreational facilities such as golf courses. Increased people paying taxes = more investment.
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How will suburbanisation affect the rural-urban fringe? Negatives
Increased cost of land and houses. Greenbelt is put under increasing pressure. The city increases in size as the demand for housing in the suburbs increases.More people commuting = increased air and noise pollution. Lose local village atmosphere.
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Clone towns
High streets and shopping centres are beginning to lose their identity and are becoming CLONE TOWNS. Examples are Exeter, Cambridge and Stafford where their high streets don’t reflect the diversity of the cities.
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The increase of trade around the world, especially by large companies producing and trading goods in many different countries. The increasing interconnection of the world’s economic, cultural and political systems.
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What has Globalisation lead to?
Globalisation has increased the production of goods and services. The biggest companies are no longer national firms but Multinational Corporations (MNC) with subsidiaries in many countries.
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Some individuals believe that globalisation is having a negative impact on cultural diversity, these are called anti-globalisationists.
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Global Marketing
Global marketing is defined as ‘marketing on a worldwide scale, reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives’.
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Resisting clone towns: Totnes
Totnes is a small town not too far from us. When Costa wanted to open a branch there they signed a petition to stop Costa getting the permission they needed and were successful.
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Ordnance Survey Maps
One way of representing place is through OS maps. These maps attempt to provide an objective representation of the area they cover, but choices are map of what to include and what to leave out.
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Formal Representations
These tend to be more objective based on facts rather than feelings or emotions. This includes all statistical representations of place such as census or geospatial data (EG. GIS).
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How much data collected over the last decade is geographically located?
90% of data collected over the last decade is geographically located.
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Abstract Representations
Some representations, like paintings and films are perceived to be less abstract that others such as maps or geographic information.
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Example of an Abstract Representation
The London Tube map is a particularly clever abstract diagrammatic map. It doesn’t show geographic locations but rather the relationship between places (the lines, stations and fare zones on the Underground).
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Informal Representations
Places can be informally represented in a wide range of ways: through contrasting media such as art, TV, film, music and photography. Representations do not necessarily what actually exists – they tend to be creative, selective and stylised.
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Place Making
Placemaking is an approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces. Placemaking capitalises on a local community's assets, inspiration, and potential, with the intention of creating public spaces that promote people's health, happines
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How does placemaking happen?
It can be either official and government led, or community driven grass roots tactical urbamakes use of underutilized space to enhance the urban nism, such as extending sidewalks with chalk, paint, and planters, or open streets events. Good placemaki
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Giving a new image to part of the city to attract people back to the area. EG. Plymouth – Britian’s Ocean city (From Sprit of Discovery).
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When the status of an inner urban area which has become unfashionable and neglected is upgraded and the status is improved. EG. Millbay in Plymouth
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Improving and investing in an area. This may include demolishing places and building new places. The use of a place may change. EG. Princesshay
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when an area becomes increasingly built up as more people move there.
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Reinventing a place for economic reasons. Normally undertaken by an agency to try and attract investment into an area. They aim to ‘sell’ the place.
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Reinventing a place for cultural reasons. It aims to change the way a place is represented in the media etc. and can be about contesting other images.
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An umbrella term that brings together the social, physical, economic and cultural changes a place may experience. It includes changes that are not deliberate.
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Place Marketing
Marketing or public relations (PR) companies may be employed by national and local government to improve or create positive perceptions of place. Strategies include: Advertising campaigns (Social media) or Official websites / newsletter
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young professionals, place making tries to bring them in
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process of making visual improvements to an area.
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Force/Agent of change
people or organisations who impact upon a place, whether through living, working or trying to improve that place.
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When the status of an inner urban area which has become unfashionable and neglected is upgraded and the status is improved. EG. Notting Hill.
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What does gentrification lead to?
Low income groups are DISPLACED by the more affluent (professionals). This process is carried out by individuals or groups and is not supported by bodies. It involved the REHABILITATION of old houses and streets on an individual basis.
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Benefits of gentrification
Housing is improved as wealthy newcomers regenerate old buildings. The value of housing in the area increases. This means that existing house owners can sell their houses for more money. New busineses move into the area = more jobs. Crime falls.
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Negatives of gentrification
High demand for housing can cause problems – tenents may be forced out as landlords wish to sell the building for large profit. Increased house prices means children of house owners cannot afford it. Original residents lose businesses that they need
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example of gentrification
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EMPLOYMENT Changes in the Docklands
Financial and high tech firms were first to be attracted to the Enterprise Zone. EG. Stock Exchange, ITV Studios, Daily Telegraph. Firms wished to relocate offices especially in the prestigious Canary Wharf Business Complex.
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TRANSPORT Changes in the Docklands
Improved links – central London reached with 10 minutes. Docklands Light Railway. The Jubilee Underground extension gives improved access to London’s mainline station – direct link with Waterloo. The New City Airport was built between the 2 docks.
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HOUSING Changes in the Docklands
Over 20 000 new homes have been created – many of them in former warehouses which have been converted into luxury flats. Newham Council has either built low cost housing or upgraded existing property.
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SERVICE & RECREATION Changes in the Docklands
Large modern shopping complex. National Indoor sports centre and a marina for water sports has opened. Several areas have been cleared and converted into parks and open space. The area boasts the largest urban tree planting scheme in the UK.
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SOCIAL SUCCESSES of the Docklands
Over 20 000 new homes created. More facilities built in the area. Luxury flats attract more economically active to the area. Most security in Canary Wharf meaning crime decreases.
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SOCIAL FAILURES of the Docklands
Conflict between locals and professionals – broke down East End community. No jobs for locals as they are unskilled and can’t do the jobs available. Locals can’t afford luxury flats which mean they are still living in poverty.
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Money in the economy increases as more people are paying taxes. Cafes turned into wine bars meaning they could make profit. Area was economically prosperous – Businesses like The Sun, ITV and The Telegraph moved to the area.
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ECONOMIC FAILURES of the Docklands
Prices on basic foods went up meaning locals couldn’t afford it – Price of bread tripled.
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More trees planted – 20 000. Area is less derelict meaning it looks more modern. Trees = less risk of flooding. Parks and green areas created.
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Increased car usage leading to more CO2 emissions and pollution. Destruction of habitats. New City Airport = Increased pollution. Land destroyed for the construction of the Jubilee Railway. Glass isn’t sustainable.
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Brought in multi-national investment. Government spent £441 million on the docklands. This brought in £4.4 billion of private investment.
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No locals were interviewed about the development process. Local councils who have been elected should decide about investment, not UDCs.
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Areas of open space and low density land use around urban areas where development are strictly controlled. They were utilised to try and limit how much the city could grow! This protects the Place of the rural areas
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No cost to clean up the site from previous uses. Existing road networks are not in place meaning there are no restrictions. They are often on the edge of cities where land is cheaper. Planners and architects have a blank canvas to work with.
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More sustainable. Stop city expanding any further and reduces journey time. Road networks already exist, as do electricity and gas networks. Easier to gain planning permission. Sites are closer to CBD for shopping and job opportunities.
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Why are people moving to rural areas? PULL FACTORS
Quiet idyllic life in the countryside. Quiet and clean environment. House prices are cheaper – Agriculture faces increased economic trouble – farmers sell unwanted land and buildings. Car ownership and greater affluence allow people to commute
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Why are people moving to rural areas? PUSH FACTORS
Problems in the CBD – crime / degradation / overcrowding. Poor quality housing in the city. Decrease in employment in the CBD as industries move out. Government have promoted this movement through The New Towns Policy (1946)
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many people move to the rural-urban fringe - science parks / retail parks / industrial estates.
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The impact of an expanding village has contributed to a demographic and social change in rural settlements.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is ‘Place Identity’?


Place identity is concerned with the meaning and significance of the place to the people who live their and its users. It is how people experience a place and the meanings they give to it.

Card 3


John Montgomery’s triangle of place identity


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Card 4


example of a place with Multiple Identities?


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Card 5


How can place identity be changed?


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