Approaches flashcards

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Introspection
The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations
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Behaviourist approach
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning
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Classical conditioning
Learning through association
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Operant conditioning
Learning through consequences (reinforcement and punishment)
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Reinforcement
A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated
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Social learning theory
A way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement, combining both the learning theory and cognitive factors
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Imitation
Copying the behaviour of others
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Identification
When an observer associates themselves with a role model and wants to be like the role model
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Modelling
Imitating the behaviour of a role model
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Vicarious reinforcement
Reinforcement which is not directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour
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Mediational processes
Cognitive factors that influence learning and come between stimulus and response
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Cognitive approach
Approach focused on how our mental processes affect behaviour
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Internal mental processes
'Private' operations of the mind that mediate between stimulus and response
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Schema
A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing, developed from experience
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Inference
The process whereby cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of observed behaviour
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Cognitive neuroscience
The scientific study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes
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Biological approach
Perspective that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body
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Genes
They make up chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes the physical features of an organism
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Biological structure
An arrangement or organisation of parts to form an organ, system or living thing
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Neurochemistry
Relating to chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning
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Genotype
The particular set of genes a person possesses
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Phenotype
The characteristics of an individual determined by both genes and the environment
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Evolution
The changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations
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Nervous system
Consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
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Central nervous system (CNS)
Consists of the brain and spinal cord and is the origin of all complex commands and decisions
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Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Sends information to the CNS from the outside world, and transmits messages from the CNS to muscles and glands in the body
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Somatic nervous system
Transmits information from receptor cells in the sense organs to the CNS. Also receives information from the CNS that directs muscles to act
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Autonomic nervous system
Transmits information to and from internal body organs
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Endocrine system
Instructs glands to release hormones directly into the bloodstream
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Gland
An organ in the body that synthesises substances such as hormones
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Hormones
Chemical substances that circulate in the bloodstream and only affect target organs
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Fight or flight response
The way an animal responds when stressed
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Adrenaline
A hormone produced by the adrenal glands which is part of the human body's immediate stress response system
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Neuron
Nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals
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Sensory neurons
Carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. Long dendrites and short axons
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Relay neurons
Connect sensory neurons to the motor or other relay neurons. Short dendrites and short axons
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Motor neurons
Connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands. Short dendrites and long axons
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Synaptic transmission
Process by which neighbouring neurons communicate with each other by sending chemical messages across the gap that separates them
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Neurotransmitter
Brain chemicals released from synaptic vesicles that relay signals across the synapse from one neuron to another
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Excitation
Where a neurotransmitter increases the positive charge of the postsynaptic neuron
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Inhibition
Where are neurotransmitter increases the negative charge of the postsynaptic neuron
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Psychodynamic approach
Perspective that describes the different forces that operate on the mind and direct human behaviour and experience
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The unconscious
The part of the mind that we're unaware of but which continues to direct much of our behaviour
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Id
Entirely unconscious, the id is made up of selfish aggressive instincts that demand immediate gratification
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Ego
The 'reality check' that balances the conflicting demands of the id and the superego
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Superego
The moralistic part of our personality which represents the ideal self
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Defence mechanisms
Unconscious strategies that the ego uses to manage the conflict between the id and the superego
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Psychosexual stages
First developmental stages that all children pass through. At each stage there is a different conflict, the outcome of which determines future development
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Humanistic psychology approach
An approach to understanding behaviour that emphasises the importance of subjective experience and each person's capacity for self-determination
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Free will
The notion that humans can make choices and are not determined by biological or external forces
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Self-actualisation
The desire to grow psychologically and fulfill one's full potential - becoming what you are capable of
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Hierarchy of needs
A five levelled hierarchal sequence in which basic needs must be satisfied before higher psychological needs can be achieved
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Congruence
When the self-concept and ideal self are seen to broadly accord or match
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Conditions of worth
When a parents places limits/boundaries on their love of their children
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning

Back

Behaviourist approach

Card 3

Front

Learning through association

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Learning through consequences (reinforcement and punishment)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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