ALL A2 PHYSICS DEFINITIONS (G484 + G485)

All A2 definitions required for OCR A syllabus.

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• Created by: CiarÃ¡n
• Created on: 26-02-14 21:17
NEWTON’S FIRST LAW
When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force.
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NEWTON’S SECOND LAW
Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). F=Ma.
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NEWTON’S THIRD LAW
When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body.
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LINEAR MOMENTUM
The product of mass and velocity. Momentum is always conserved
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NET FORCE
Net force on a body as equal to rate of change of its momentum
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IMPULSE OF A FORCE
Ft=average force x time
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PERFECT ELASTIC COLLISION
Kinetic energy and momentum is conserved. No energy is dissipated as heat etc.
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INELASTIC COLLISION
Momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not. Energy is converted into heat etc.
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RADIAN
Unit of angle or phase difference. One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of circumference that is equal in length to the radius of the circle. 2π=360°
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GRAVITATIONAL FIELD STRENGTH
Force per unit mass g=F/M
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GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT
Geostationary satellites orbit directly above the same point every 24 hours e.g. TV/satellite signals
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DISPLACEMENT
Distance of object from midpoint (m)
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AMPLITUDE
The maximum displacement from the equilibrium position (m)
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FREQUENCY
The number of oscillations per unit time (Hz)
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ANGULAR FREQUENCY
The frequency of a steadily recurring phenomenon expressed in radians per second. A frequency in hertz can be converted to an angular frequency by multiplying it by 2π.
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PHASE DIFFERENCE
A measure of the relationship between the pattern of vibration at two points. Two points that have the same pattern are in phase (0 phase difference).
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SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
An oscillation in which the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to its displacement, and is directed towards the midpoint.
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PRESSURE
Force per unit area, measured in Pascal’s 1Pa=1N/m
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INTERNAL ENERGY
The sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system
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SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY
The energy required to change the state of 1kg of a substance by 1K. Measured in J/Kg/K.
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ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH
Force per unit positive charge.
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MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY
A measure of the strength of the magnetic field as given by B=F/ILsinθ measured in tesla (T).
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TESLA
Unit of magnetic flux density T. 1T is the magnetic flux density that will produce a force of 1N on 1m of wire carrying a current of 1A perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field.
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MAGNETIC FLUX
The product of magnetic flux density and the area at right angles to the flux. Given by ∅=BAcosθ, measured in Weber (Wb).
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WEBER
Unit of magnetic flux Wb. 1 Wb is the flux when a magnetic flux density of 1T passes through an area of 1m squared at right angles
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MAGNETIC FLUX LINKAGE
The product of the magnetic flux and the number of turns on the coil it passes through. Given by Magnetic Flux Linkage=N∅, often measured in Weber turns.
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CAPACITANCE
The charge sored per unit potential difference, as given by C=Q/V , measured in farads (F).
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FARAD
Unit of capacitance F. 1 F is 1C of charge stored per volt.
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TIME CONSTANT (CR)
The time taken for the charge remaining on a capacitor to fall 1/e of its original value. It can be found using the expression CR, measured in seconds (s).
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PROTON/ATOMIC NUMBER
The number of protons inside a certain nucleus, also known as the atomic number.
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NUCLEON/MASS NUMBER
The number of neutrons added to the number of protons inside a certain nucleus, an alternative name for mass number.
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ISOTOPES
Nuclides with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
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ACTIVITY (A)
The number of radioactive decays per unit time, measured in Becquerel’s (Bq).
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DECAY CONSTANT (λ)
The probability of radioactive decay, given by λ=A/N, measured in (s^-1).
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HALF–LIFE
The average time taken for the activity of a radioactive source to decrease to one half of its original value.
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BINDING ENERGY
The energy required to separate an atom into its component parts.
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BINDING ENERGY PER NUCLEON
The average energy required to remove a nucleon from the nucleus.
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INTENSITY
Power per unit cross-sectional area. The energy incident per square metre of a surface per second measured in watts per metre squared (Wm^-2).
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ASTRONOMICAL UNITS (AU)
The average distance from the Earth to the Sun. 1AU=1.496 x 10^-11m
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PARSECS (pc)
A unit of distance originating from triangulation methods applied to space. 1Pc=3.086 x 10^16m
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LIGHTYEAR (ly)
The distance light travels in a year through a vacuum. 1ly=9.461 x 10^15m
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CRITICAL DENSITY (pc)
The average density of the universe above which the universe will collapse (closed universe) below and which the universe will expand forever (open universe). pc =9.5 x 10^-27 kgm^-3.
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PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
In the absence, of external forces, the total momentum of a system remains constant.
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NEWTON'S LAW OF GRAVITATION
The gravitational force of attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres of mass.
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BOYLE'S LAW
The volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to pressure exerted on it, provided temperature remains constant. pV=constant.
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AVOGADRO CONSTANT
One mole of any substance. 6.02x10^23 particles.
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SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY
The energy required to change the state of a 1kg of a substance by 1K. Energy change = mass x specific heat capactiy x change in temperature.
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FARADAY'S LAW
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f is equal to the rate of change of flux linkage.
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LENZ'S LAW
The induced e.m.f is always in such a direction as to oppose the change that caused it.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). F=Ma.

Back

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW

Card 3

Front

When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body.

Card 4

Front

The product of mass and velocity. Momentum is always conserved

Card 5

Front

Net force on a body as equal to rate of change of its momentum

Comments

Report

For Specific heat capacity, it's the energy to increase the temperature of an 1 kg object by 1K or 1*C

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