A level sports studies key terms

3D surfaces
third-generation artificial synthetic pitches
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measured in m/s2 and is the rate of change of velocity
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achievement motivation
the tendency to approach or avoid competitive situations. summed up as the drive to succeed minus the fear of failure
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active stretch
when a stretched position is held by the contraction of an agonist muscle
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actual behaviour
what the leader decides to do in relation to leadership style
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acute injury
a sudden injury caused by a specific impact or traumatic event where a sharp pain is felt immediately
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adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
the only usable form of energy in the body
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altitude training
usually done at 2500m+ above sea level where the partial pressure of oxygen is lower
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participation in sport for the love of it with no financial gain, it is based on the concept of athleticism e.e. physical endeavour with moral integrity
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a reaction that can occur without the presence of oxygen
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angle of attack
the tilt of a projectile relative to the air flow
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angular acceleration
the rate of change of angular velocity
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angular displacement
the smallest change in angle between the start and the finish of a rotation
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angular momentum
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angular velocity
the rate of change of angular displacement
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pre-judging stimulus
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linking the stored actions of a skill to a stored emotion or other action
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a fanatical devotion to sport involving high levels of physical endeavour and moral integrity
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attributing success internally
giving a reason for success that is due to the responsibility of the player
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attribution retraining
changing the reasons given for success or failure
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a perception of the reason for an outcome of an event
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autocratic approach
leader makes the decisions
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bay area laboratory cooperative (BALO)
which was behind one of the biggest scandals in drugs history as the sources of THG, with several athletes implicated and subsequently banned from sport, including sprinters Dwain Chambers and Marion Jones
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ballistic stretching
uses of swinging and bouncing movements
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bernoulli principle
where air molecules exert less pressure the faster they travel and more pressure when they travel slower
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bosman ruling
a ruling by the European court of justice which gave a professional football player the right to free transfer at the end of their contract
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a process which aids the removal of lactate and maintains acidity levels in the blood and muscle
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the calculation of heat in physical changes and chemical reactions and the measurement of heat and energy eliminated or stored in any system
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central executive
the control centre of the working memory model, it uses 3 other systems to control all the information moving in and out the memory system
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key features used to identify a particular concept
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chronic injuries
often referred to as over-use injuries
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breaking the skilled action into part or sub-routines
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players can be cited for dangerous play, whether they are seen by the referee or not
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cognitive effects of stress
these are psychological
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the treating of sport as a commodity, involving the buying and selling of assets, with the market as the driving force behind sport
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competitive orientation
the degree to which a performer is drawn to challenging situations
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compression clothing
items such as elasticated leggings, socks or shirts worn to promote recovery by improving circulation. they can decrease pain suffered from muscle soreness and decrease time for repair
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a belief in the ability to master a task
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a scale representing gradual change
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cori cycle
the process where lactic acid is transported in the blood to the liver where it is converted to blood glucose and glycogen
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coupled reaction
when energy required by one process is supplied by another process
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the use of cold temperatures to treat an injury
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cue utilisation
the ability to process information is directly linked to the level of arousal
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cycle ergometer
a stationary bike that measures how much work is being performed
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individuals seeking legal redress and compensation for loss of earnings must prove they have suffered an actual injury as the result of the deliberate harmful, reckless actions of an opponent
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data integrity
maintaining and ensuring the accuracy and consistency of stored data over its entire lifetime
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deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
a blood clot in one of the deep veins in the body
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decisions made by group consideration
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direct gas analysis
measures the concentration of oxygen that is inspired and the concentration of carbon dioxide that is expired
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measured in meters and is the shortest route in a straight line between the starting and finishing position
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the sporting environment
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measured in meters and is the path a body takes as it moves from the starting to finishing position
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in competitive sports, doping refers to the use of banned performance enhancing drugs by athletic competitors
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drag force
a force that acts in opposition to motion
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duty of care applied to coaches
this requires coaches to take such measures as are reasonable in the circumstances to ensure that individuals will be safe to participate in an activity
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duty of care
a legal obligation imposed on someone they are responsible for a group of people
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electrocardiogram machine (ECG)
where electrodes are placed onto the players chest and the wires connect to an ECG machine and a print out is produced of the hearts electrical activity
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effector mechanism
the network of nerves that sends coded impulses to the muscles
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electron transport chain
involves a series of chemical reactions in the cristae of the mitochondria where hydrogen is oxidised to water and 34 ATP are produced
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the production of muscle contraction using electrical impulses
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the best, highest level sports performers at excellence level
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emergent leader
appointed from within the group
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emotional arousal
a perception of the effects of anxiety on performance
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energy continuum
a term which describes the type of respiration used by physical activities. whether it is aerobic or anaerobic depends on intensity and duration of exercise
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episode buffer
coordinates the sight, hearing and movement information from the working memory into sequences to be sent to the long term memory
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post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have been consumed at rest during the same time
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erythropoietin (EPO)
a hormone which is naturally produced by the kidneys but can also be artificially produced to increase performance in endurance
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a positive response of the body to a threat
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external attribute
outside the performers control
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a layer of fibrous connective tissue which surrounds the muscle or group of muscles
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football hooliganism
unruly, violent and destructive behaviour by over-zealous supporters of association football clubs
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'g' forces
forces acting on the body as a result of acceleration or gravity
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game golf
a lightweight GPS tracking device which captures accurate shot locations and calculates club performance during a round of golf
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bending of the rules and stretching them to their absolute limit without getting caught; using whatever dubious methods possible to achieved desired result
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a process in which glucose is converted into pyruvate to produce energy
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global positioning system (GPS)
a space based navigation system that provides location and time information
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hick's law
reaction time increases as the number of choices increases
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high socio-economic demographic
a sport played or watched by individuals with high levels of disposable income
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acts of vandalism and violence in public places committed especially by youths
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horizontal component
the horizontal motion of an object
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horizontal displacement
the shortest distance from the starting point to the finishing point in a line parallel to the ground
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impulse = force x time
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in the place of a parent
it is the authority parents assign to another responsible adult who will be taking care of their child
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indirect calorimetry
measures the production of CO2 and/or the consumption of O2 it also measures the amount of heat and energy generated in an oxidation reaction
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information processing
the methods by which data from the environment are collected and utilised
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initial conditions
information from the environment
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input stage
information picked up by the senses
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the combination of the situational and personality factors that decide the level of achievement motivation
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internal attribute
within the performers control
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the inner sense that gives information about body position and muscular tension
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krebs cycle
a series of cyclical chemical reactions that take place using oxygen in the matrix of the mitochondria
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lactate threshold
the point during exercise at which lactic acid quickly accumulates in the blood
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lateral epicondylitis
the medical term for tennis elbow
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someone who has influence in helping others to achieve their goals
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learned helplessness
using internal stable reasons for losing
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free time during which individuals can choose what to do
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lift force
causes the body to move perpendicular to the direction of travel
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long-term memory
receives information from the working memory and has an unlimited capacity for the storage of motor programmes
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the quantity of matter the body possesses
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an organised mean of communication by which large numbers of people can be reached quickly
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mental practice
going over the action in the mind without physical movement
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an individual who helps and guides another persons development
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the practice in which the brand or image from one product is uses to sell another
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metabolic cart
a device which works by attaching headgear to a subject while the person breathes a specific amount of oxygen over a period of time
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movement time
the time taken to complete the task
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the need to achieve; approach behaviour the player welcomes competition
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the need to avoid failure; avoidance behaviour the player avoids risk
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national governing body
an organisation which has responsibility for managing its own particular sport
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negative deviance
behaviour that goes against the norms and has a detrimental effect on individuals and society in general
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conduct that falls below a reasonable person standard and leads to a breach of the duty of care, which results in foreseeable harm to another
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net impulse
a combination of positive and negative impulses
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non-rem sleep
means there is no rapid eye movement it consists of three stages of sleep which get progressively deeper
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objective data
fact based information which is measurable and usable
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objective sporting situation
the performance takes into account the situation in which the task is being undertaken
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onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)
the point when lactate levels go above 4 millimoles per litre
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a build-up of fluid which causes swelling
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the communications regulator in the UK
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outdoor education
activities which take place in the natural environment and utilise nature/geographical resources such as mountains, rivers, lakes
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oxygen consumption
the amount of oxygen we use to produce ATP
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a curve with matching left and right hand sides
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participation level
an emphasis on taking part recreationally with enjoyment as a key motivator to participate
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passive stretch
uses an external force to help the stretched position
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perceived risk
a challenge that stimulates a sense of danger and adventure for beginners or inexperienced performers in a safe environment, with danger minimised via stringent safety measures
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the process of coding and interpreting sensory information
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performance accomplishments
what you have already achieved
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performance analysis
the provision of objective feedback to performers trying to get a positive change in performance
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performance pathway team
a combination of EIS and UK sport expertise used to identify and develop world class talent
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personal qualities
the attributes and personality characteristics of an individual person
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person-orientated leadership
concerned with the interpersonal relationships
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phonological loop
deals with auditory information from the senses and helps produce the memory trace
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an energy rich phosphate compound found in the sarcoplasm of the muscles
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involves repeated rapid stretching and contacting of muscles to increase muscle power
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positive deviance
behaviour which is outside the norms of society but with no intent to harm or break the rules, it involves over-adherence to the norms or expectations of society
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preferred behaviour
what the group wants
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prescribed leader
appointed from outside the group
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the senses that provide internal information form within the body
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psychological refractory period
a delay when a second stimulus is presented before the first has been processed
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qualitative data
data that is descriptive and looks at the way people think or feel
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quantitive data
data that can be written down or measured precisely and numerically
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the unit of measurement for angles
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reaction force
this occurs when 2 bodies are in contact with one another
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reaction time
the time taken from the onset of a stimulus to the onset of a response
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recall schema
initiates movement, comes before the action
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receptor system
the senses that pick up information from the display
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recognition schema
controls movement, happens during the action
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refers to the degree to which data collection is consistent and stable over time
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required behaviour
what the situation demands
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a systematic process of investigation and study carried out with the aim of advancing knowledge
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respiratory exchange ratio
the ration of carbon dioxide produced compared to oxygen consumed
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response outcome
feedback about the response
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response specifications
information about what to do
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response time
the time taken from the onset of a stimulus to the completion of the task. response time = reaction time + movement time
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resting energy expenditure
the amount of energy usually expresses in kcal, required for a 24 hour period by the body during rest
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restraint of trade
action interferes with free competition in a market. in sport this might involve a clause in a contract which restricts a persons right to carry out their profession
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rest, ice, compression, elevation
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a number of sporting events at national and international level must be available for viewing
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the fluid that surrounds the nucleus of a muscle fibre and is the site where anaerobic respiration takes place
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scalar quantities
quantities that just have size
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school games
initiative to increase participation in school from intra/inter-school level through to county and national levels
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school sport partnership
the creation of increased opportunities for school sport via primary schools working together with secondary schools and further education providers
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selective attention
filtering relevant information from irrelevant information
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a belief in the ability to master a specific sporting situation
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self-serving bias
using external and/or unstable reasons for losing
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sensory consequences
information about the feel of the movement
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discrimination on the basis of sex/gender
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trying to deceive an official by over acting
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smart wearable fitness and sports device
device that is worn or attached to a performers body while in use to provide instant feedback on aspects of performance such as distance covered, heart rate
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socio-economic status
an individuals position in the social structure, which depends on their job, level of income and area they live in
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soft tissue
includes tendons, ligaments, muscles, nerves and blood vessels
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software and hardware
computer software is any set of machine-readable instructions which direct a computers processor to perform specific operations. computer hardware is the physical component of computers
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somatic effects of stress
these are physiological
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spatial anticipation
where and what is going to happen
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a measurement in meters/second of the body movement per unit of time with no reference to direction
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provision of funds, money and/or support for a commercial return
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sporting development continuum
participation in various forms of physical activity at various stages of development
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sports analytics
studying data studying data from sports performances to try improve performance
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sports equity
fairness in sport; equality of access for all; recognising inequalities in sport and taking steps to address them
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sports law
the laws, regulations and judicial decisions that govern sports and athletes who perform in them
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confronting to the rules, spirit and etiquette of a sport
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stable attribute
unlikely to change in the short-term
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state confidence
a belief in the ability to master a specific sporting situation
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static stretching
when the muscle is held in a stationary position for ten seconds or more
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drugs that induce a temporary improvement in mental and physical function
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the important and relevant items of information from the display
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involves shaping a body so it can move as effectively and quickly through a fluid as possible
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a negative response of the body to a threat causing anxiety
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subjective data
based on personal opinion which is less measurable and often less usable
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sub-maximal oxygen deficit
where there is not enough oxygen available at the start of exercise to provide all the energy aereobicaly
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talent identification
the multi-disciplinary screening of athletes in order to identify those with the potential for wold class success
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task leadership
concerned with getting results
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television match official
rugby league use a television match official who is a referee who can review plays by looking at TV footage as and when asked to by the on-field referee
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temporal anticipation
when is it going to happenn
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a banned steroid used to increase power which was tweaked by chemists to make it undetectable in normal tests
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the rotational consequence of a force
194 of 214
trait confidence
a belief in the ability to do well in a range of sports
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translatory mechanism
adapting and comparing coded information to memory so that decisions can be made
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unstable attribute
can change in a short amount of time
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an indication of whether the data collected actually measures what it claims to measure
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varied practice
changing the type and content of the practice session
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vector quantities
quantities tha have size and direction
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measured in meteres/second and is the rate of change of dispalcement
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verbal persuasion
encouragement from others
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vertical component
the upward motion of an object
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vibration technology
vibration training/therapy is also known as whole body vibration
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vicarious experience
seeing others do the task
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video motion analysis
a technique used to get information about moving objects from video
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violence in sport
physical acts committed to harm others
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visuospatial sketchpad
used to temporarily store visual and spaitial information
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VO2 max
the maximum volume of oxygen that can be taken up by the muscles per minute
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world anti-doping agency
a foundation created in 1999 through a colective initiative led by 10C to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs
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the gravitaional force exerted on an object weight = mass x accerlation
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whereabouts system
a system designed to suport out of competition testing which requires athletes to supply details of their whereabouts so that they can be located at any time
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whole sport plan
a business plan submitted to sport england outlinging national govering body strategies to increase participation and enhance talent
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working memory
performs a number of functions
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


measured in m/s2 and is the rate of change of velocity



Card 3


the tendency to approach or avoid competitive situations. summed up as the drive to succeed minus the fear of failure


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


when a stretched position is held by the contraction of an agonist muscle


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


what the leader decides to do in relation to leadership style


Preview of the back of card 5
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