key definitions and learning outcomes
- extrinsic factors: can cause an injury through something you dont have control of.
- intrinsic factors: can cause an injury through something you have control of.
- learning outcome 1 (LO1): understand different factors which may influence risk of injury.
- learning outcome2 (LO2): understand how appropriate warm up and cool down routines can help to prevent injury.
- learning outcome 3 (LO3): know how to respond to injuries within a sporting content.
extrinsic factors that can influence risk of injur
- type of activity
- coaching and supervision
- environmental factors
- safety hazards
extrinsic factors in detail p1
- type of activity
contact sports pose more risk than individual sports. for example: rugby poses a greater risk of injury than golf.
- coaching and supervision
poor /incorrect coching techniques, inefective communication skills, importance of adhering (following) to rules and regulation: rules are there for safety and for a fair competition. if rules not followed serious injuries can happen.
- environmental factors
weather conditions: if too hot you can get dehydration and if too cold you can get hypothermia, playing surfaces and surrounding areas: area must be checked before a activity/competition (for example: football officials must check that pitch is suitable to play on and the markings are clearly visible), other particapants: may be aggressive or get in the way for collisions or accidents through contact
extrinsic factors in detail p2
protective equipment: organisers and officials must check that all of the equipment is in good condition. most activities require protective equipment and clothing. for example: football requires football boots, goal gloves and shin pads. some positions have special/specific clothing.
performance equipment: is the equipment required for each sport and activity. for example: hockey: hockey stick.
clothing and footwear: must be suitable for the playing surface, weather conditions and specific for the sport/activity. most important item of equipment is footwear, most sports require specialist footwear. for example: in football you must wear football boots as the stoods provide you grip. players boots must be checked if the studs are damaged before they go on the pitch. for example: sprinters need sprinting spikes for better grip and to help them run faster, however the spikes can injuresprinters when fallen over.
extrinsic factors in detail p3
- safecty hazards
risk assessments: its a simple assessment done to identify what can cause you and others harm. the purposes of risk assessments are: to think what might cause harm , identify the hazards, the environment, identify who might get harmed, decide what steps are needed to be taken to minimise rik or prevent injury. risk assessments ensure a match/lesson is safe to go ahead, risk assessments reduce injury by checking equipment and actions to be taken to prevent injury.
safety checks: some of the things taht need to happen before a session are: ensuring correct footwear and clothing is worn,equipment needs checking to ensure its safe, jewllery is removed, check that theres enough space for number of people and type of session, ensure that theres no litter.
emergency action plan: emergency personnel:first responder/ first aider/ coach.emergency communication: telephone/ emergency contact numbers/ emergency services.emergency equipment: first aid kit/ evacuation chair. benefits: reduces risk of minor and serious injures and minor injuries developing into more serious injuries.
intrinsic factors that can influence risk of injur
- physical preparation
- individula variables
- psychological factors
- posture and causes of poor posture
- sports injuries related to poor posture
intrinsic factors in detail p1
- physical preparation:
training: athletes must prepare their bodies to be able to perform at optimum levels, if they dont it can led to poor performance levels as well as leading to injury. long-term preparation is needed in training for many activities like running a marathon.
warm-up: absence or an inadequate wram up is a common cause of sports injuries. a warm up takes body from a non-active state to active state, how long it takes varies from person to person. pulse raisers: get blood flowing around the body and to muscles, making them more pliable (stretchy). mobilisers:take joints through their full range of movement and help lubricate joints and stretch muscles, supporting the joint.
cool-down: cool downs often overlooked once finished training or after a competition as the fun is over and you're tired. a cool down helps to return body back to normal and reduce aches and pains next day. a good cool down consists of: light exercises like jogging/walking reducing in pace and static streches.
intrinsic factors in detail p2
fitness levels: athletes must be fit enough to be able to perform skills needed to compete in their sport, when athletes become tired, performance levels can drop and injuries more likely to occur. athletes can adopt poor technique due to them becoming physically and psychologicaly fatigued which means they can make the wrong decisions.
overuse: overuse injuries occur when athlete doesnt get the required amount of rest. everytime we exercise our body is put under stress meaning the body has to repair itself afterwards. athletes can become succeptable to a certain injury if they've experienced damage to a damaged area repeatedly including going back to exercise too early.
muscle imbalance: involves anatgonistic pairs, they work together however some people over train a certain muscle/group and neglect that muscle. antagonistic pair injuries can occur as one mucle can be either mor tight/loose than the other.
intrinsic factors in detail p3
- individual factors:
gender: males generally stronger and less prone to injury than women, females are more flexible. males and females should not be mixed in sports sessions, for example: in contact sports like rugny and football.
age: older peole generally weaker menaing they're more prone to injury. children should be competing against people their own age/ similar age to reduce injuries. for example: adults playing rugby alongside/against teens/children could cause injury.
flexibility: the more flexible the less chance of injury. if a person is infelxible they're more likely to strain/pull/tear/starin muscles/tendons/ligaments. poor flexibility may cause a performer to use poor technique which could then lead to an injury in the longer term.
nutrition: poor nutrition can affect concentration, focus and a performer may become distracted causing them to use poor and dangerous technique, to prevent dehydration and weakness you need to drink enough water. poor nutrition is lacking in enough carbohydrates which may cause a performerto be too tired or lacking in energy which could lead to fainting/illness. too much fat can lead to obesity and being overweight. lack of minerals and vitamins could lead to weak bones.
intrinsic factors in detail p4
sleep: lack of sleep can lead to poor judgement and decisions made like inappropriate/dangerous play or poor reaction times. it may also affect focus and concentration or poor and incorrect decision making causing poor technique and injuries. this may affect motivation which may lead to injury by pulling out of a tackle. lack of sleep might cause irritability/agression.
previous/recurring injuries: increased chance of injury again, for example: pulled hamstring that become weak/broken bone. performing again too soon or you over work the previously injured part or it han't healed yet. the injury could either cause weakness leading to further injury or could cause the performer to perform differently or change to a poor technique. could cause altered posture, muscle imbalance, reduced flexibility and can cause psychological issues/stress/anxiety.
intrinsic factors in detail p5
agression: being aggresive in certain sports can cause others to retaliate or become agressive in return. being aggresive can foul or hurt/harm opponent. it can also result in poor technique and in turn result in injury. it can also cause lack of control.
arousal/anxiety levels: too stressed, worried or nervous to perform well. you may be too commited which could lead to aggresion (arousal). lakc of confidence, too soft or could pull out of tackles. you may not be able to concentrate or focus and or make wrong decisions.
- posture and causes of poor posture
poor stance/gait/slouching: actions which could cause poor posture are like bending your knees when wlaking, hunching your shoulders when standing up and lastly poor technique or coaching.
sitting positions: poor sitting position, sitting for too long, poor sleeping positions, slumping/ slouching on the sofa rather than sitting upwright, poorly designed or uncomfortable seats/chairs can lead to back pain, shoulder otr poor posture. when you sit, you round your spine which eliminates the curves creating an unequal distribution of pressure along your spine and back.
intrinsic factors in detail p6
physical defects: muscles are weakened around an injured area. you might have a muscular imbalance. an injury, back problems, you may be obese/overweight or you may be pregnant.
lack of exercise: lack of core muscle strength means less support. being overweight puts strain on posture.
fatigue: tired and tight muscles menaing you're unable to support the skeleton properly. you have a tendancy to slouch. you may of slept awkwardly.
emotional (psychological) factors: having low self-esteem and lack of confidence could lead to stress which gives you poor awarness of posture. lack of motivation could cause you to not care how you sit and you may not stand properly.
clothing and footwear: wearing hsoes with high heels. having a poor techniques, heavy bags and having a poorly fitted rucksack.
- sports injuries related to poor posture
intrinsic factors in detail p7
pelvic tilt: a condition where hips are not level, their are 2 types anterior and posterior pelvic tilt. symptoms are: lower back pain, stiffness and groin pain.
lordosis: condition where the spine in lower back has an excesive curvature. symptoms: back pain and discomfort, problems moving in certain ways.
kyposis: an abnormla curving of the upper spine causing back to appear slouching or hunched. symptoms: mid to severe back pain, difference in shoulder height, fatigue, in severe cases chest pain or difficulty breathing.
scoliosis: curvature of the spine (s or c shape). symptoms: prominent rib/s, uneven arm/led lengths, uneven muscles in back, leaning to one side or spine bending either to left ro right.
round shoulder: typically caused by poor posture habits. it can be muscular imbalance, by focusing too much on chest strength whilst neglecting the upper back.
increasing risk of injury: increased chance of loss of bone mass/weaker bones leading to risk of fractures.
- key components of a warm-up:
pulse raiser: exercises that slowly increase heart rate and body temperature. for example: jogging, cycling, skipping.
mobility: exercises that takes joints through their full range of movement. for example: arm swings, hip circles.
dynamic movements: help activate circulatory and respirotary systems responsible for controlling and fuelling movement. for example: heel flicks.
streching: lengthens muscles in preparation for exercise. for example: developmental streches, dynamic streches, passive streches.
skill rehersal phase: practising/rehersing common movemnet patterna nd skills that'll be used in the activity. for example: dribblind round cones in football, passing drills in netball.
- physical benefits of a warm-up
warms up muscles preparing the body for physical activity. increases body temperature meaning muscles are more flexible. increase in heart rate increases blood supply to muscles speeding up the flow incresing oxygen supply to working muscles. this increases felxibility of muscle snad joints. by increasing pliability of ligaments and tendons it allows a greater range of movement at a joint reducing injury. increase in blood flow and oxygen in muscles increases in speed of muscle contraction.
- psychological benefits of a warm-up
hightens/controls arousal levels: get you in the zone/psychs you up. settles nerves, gets you mentally prepared, could increase aggression, calms you down.lakcing focus or being reckless coudl lead to injury.
improve concentration/focus: performer begins to get into right frame of mind, beginning to concentrate on performance ahead. it mentally prepares you and improves your reaction times. for example:thinking about and imagining kicking off a conversation over bar in rugby.
increasing motivation: thinking about task ahead have a goal of winning. getting you in the zone. performing well and trying harder or raising your confidence. you don't give up, you want to play game more. for example: enables team to win or gain promotion.
mental rehersal: thinking through, visualising or imagining each element of routine before performing it. focussing, concentrating, ignoring or disdtraction such as crowd snd other performers. for example: gymnastics.
- key components of a coo down
pulse lowering: exercises that gradually lower the heart rate and reduce temperature. for example: easy movements like light running and streches.
streching: maintenance and static streches. for example: hamstring steches.
- physical benefits of a cool down
helps bodys transition back to resting state. a cool down gradually lowers heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and breathing rate. removes waste products like lactic acid. reducing risk of muscle soreness and stiffness. aids recovery by streching muscles, lengthening and strengthening muscles for next work-out.
specific needs warm up+cool down must consider p1
size of group: an injury can be caused by space being too small for the size of group, can be caused by people bumping into each other, a large group cannot hear instructions, cant concentrate meaning they cannot focus on the task set. for example: when warming up on a badminton court with a racquet-too many people on a single badminton court, may lead to being hit in the face by a racquet.
age of particapants: young or old particapants the activity needs to be age appropriate in certain sports like contact sport. for example: children playing contact rugby against adults is not wright as its very dangerous.
experience of particapants: novice (new) or expert the activity needs to be appropriate to the skill level of particapant. for example: particapants new to trampolining would warm-up by staright bouncing however an expert would warm-up using straight bounces, shapes and seat landings.
any medical conditions particapants may have: coach must be aware of following medical conditions before starting a warm-up: diabetes, epilepsy, asthma, scoliosis, osgoods schallaters, heart problems, heart disease and (severe) allergies.
specific needs warm up+cool down must consider p2
individual fitness levels: a individual needs to be set a appropriate warm-up/cool-down at right level of their fitness. you need to consider: trained particapants, unfit particapants, previous injury, flexibility, size and weight of particapants. for example: if a person is overweight and doesn't exercise a warm-up pulse raiser shouldn't include running thats too fast for them, instead walking faster would be more suitable.
suitability as preparation for a particular activity/sport: gender: males and females shouldn't be mixed in sport sessions as they have different levels of strength and flexibility. age: young people should be competing against people their own age. previous/reccuring injuries: ensure activity is not going to place too much stress on an area of body that has or is susceptible to injury.
environmental factors: these factors may affect warm-ups or cool-downs by: if your in a poor facility injuries are more likely to occur. its more difficult to cool down in hot conditions so therefore you must cool down in a shaded area. if too hot you must take in more fluids. if too cold outside you should cool-down indoors in cold conditions to prevent heat loss. if too cold the cool-down should be longer and if too hot the cool-down should be shorter.
responding to injuries in a sporting context p1
- types of injury
acute injuries: its caused by sudden trauma or blow to the body. you get immediate pain, immediate swelling on or around point of contact and immediate loss of function/weakness.
chronic injuries: overuse injuries and as a result of continuos stress on a area. the injuries tend to develop over a period of time resulting in pain. swelling over period of time, lasts long time or keeps reccuring. you get gradual loss of function or increase in weakness.
- acute injuries
soft tissue injuries: sprain: caused by sudden trauma. symptoms: swelling/bruising, redness/ inflamation, hot, unable to place any pressure on it, loss of function. treatment: RICE. for example: in netball whne reaching out for the ball. strain (pulled muscle): caused by sudden trauma. symptoms: swelling/bruising, redness/ inflamation, hot. treatment: ice packs and bandaging. for example: in gymnastics when doing a cartwheel and landing it wrongly.
responding to injuries in a sporting context p2
fractures: open fracture: can be caused by a mistimed tackle. symptoms: bone sticking through skin, bleeding and swelling. treatment: taping, bandaging, splints, slings, cast, rest, surgery and metal rods. closed fracture: can be caused by a mistimed tackle. symptoms: brake under skin, deformity and swelling. treatment: taping, bandaging, splints, slings, cast, rest, surgery and metal rods.
concussion: caused by sudden trauma or a tackle. symptoms: ache in head, dizziness, unconsious and memory loss. treatment: rest, ice/cold compress or emergency medical help.
abrasions (cuts and grazes): caused falling off something like a bike during a cycling session, falling over something or being hit by something.symptoms: swelling and/or bleeding. treatment: sterilising (clenaing the wound), covering with a plaster and stiching. if acut, elevate and compress.
contusion (bruises): caused by sudden trauma. symptoms: tender and bruise may appear. treatment: ice, elevation, rest.
responding to injuries in a sporting context p3
blisters: caused by too much friction/rubbing or ill-fitting footwear/clothing. for example: a new pair of trainers to do a long run, without letting your feet adapt to them. wearing no socks and heat/sweating. symptoms: bubble of skin filled with claer fluid and redness. treatment: plaster/s to cushion the blister/s, rest affect area until healed, use cream and medication.
cramp: painful sensations caused by muscle contractions or over shortening. symptoms: sudden pain. treatment: strech and massage, heat or cold.
- chronic injuries
tendonitis: caused by continuos stress, overuse or by poor technique symptoms: pain/soreness in area where tendon is, inflammation and swelling.treatment: taping, bandaging, mobility exercises, ulrasound and RICE.
tennis elbow: result of continuos stress, overuse. symptoms: tenderness on outside of elbow. treatment: rest, ice, streching, massage, taping and bandaging.
golfers elbow: result of continuos stress. symptoms: tenderness on inner side of elbow. treatment: rest, ice and medictaion.
responding to injuries in a sporting context p4
shin splints: caused by change in surface training on, increasing training intensity or inadequate footwear.symptoms: ache, hurt, tenderness and swelling in shins/lower leg.treatment: RICE
injuries related to children: sever's disease: affects/pain in heels when walking. occurs during a growth spurt or bones growing quicker or at different rates than muscles. achilles tendon at back of heel pulls at heel bone. most common in younger children. osgoods schalatters disease: affects/pain/swelling in upper part of shin or knee. most commonly occurs in teenagers who play sport or during a growth spurt or bones grwing quicker or at different rates than muscle.
how 2 respond to injuries+medical conditions p1
see: what happend, ask who was on the scene of what happened.
ask: ask where it hurts, about the injury and how it happened.
look: look for signs of an injury. for example: bruising, swelling and bleeding.
touch: touch injured site and see if their's any tenderness or any abnormabilities.
active: see if player can move limb themselves.
passive: look at reactionwhen they move the joint and/or limb to full extent.
strength: looks at if person can apply their own weight to area, if they can get up.
how 2 respond to injuries+medical conditions p2
rest: rest injured part and stop activity.for example: use crutches, splints or put feet up to prefent further harm or injury.
ice: apply ice.for example: apply 15-20 minutes ebery 2-3 hours or at regular intervals.
compress: compress.for example: bandage injured part (not too tight) or support and protect the limb.
elevate: elevate. for example: above heart level and keep limb up to reduce swelling, pain and direct blood flow away.
- streching and massage
streching: increases flexibility and flow of blood of blood into affected body part. reduces muscle tension.
massage: helps to relax. loosens muscles, relieves tension, pain and muscle soreness. increases flexibility and flow of blood of blood into affected body part.
how 2 respond to injuries+medical conditions p3
- taping, splints, slingsn and bandaging
taping: provides support, keeps muscles and joints in place, reduces mobility and reduces pain
bandaging: used to cover or stem bleeding, reduces risk of infection and supports injured area.
splints: provides support, keeps muscles and joints in place, reduces mobility, prevents movement and reduces pain.
slings: keeps area of body held in position, supports injured area, prevents further damage and reduces swelling.
- hot treatments
heat pads, deep heat cream, hot water bottles, heat lamps, heat blankets (used to treat hypothermia), massage/friction (to improve rehabilitation), hot tub/hot bath.
heat: usually used for cramps, cold: usually used for swelling.
how 2 respond to injuries+medical conditions p4
- emergency action plan
emergency personel: first responder/ first aider/ coach
emergency communication: telephone/ emergency contact numbers/ emergency services.
emergenct equipment: first aid kit/ evacuation chair.
- medical conditions:
asthma: symptoms: coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, tightness of chest. treatment: reassure, keep calm, inhaler, call 999.
epilepsy: symptoms: seizures, blurred vision, jaw clenching, making random noises, rubbing hands. treatment: call 999, medication, protect person from injury, dont restrain, stay with person until full recovery.
diabetes: symptoms: increased thirst/appetite, fatigue, fainting, weight loss, confusion, memory loss, nausea, high/low blood sugar levels. treatment: give individual friut juice/sweets (low blood sugar), give insulin (high blood sugar), call 999.
how 2 respond to injuries+medical conditions p5
type 1 diabetes: insulin dependant/no insulin, usually diagnosed early on in a persons life, genetically determined-high blood sugar levels. occurs independantly of persons lifestyle.
type 2 diabetes: usually stars as non-insulin dependant/ not enough insulin, usuallu occurs later in life with aging, often occurs due to poor lifestyle/diet, in most cases its preventable.