5.6- Vaccination

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What is the definition of immunity?
The ability of an organism to resist infection
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How is passive immunity enforced?
By the introduction of antibodies into individuals from an outside source
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Does there need to be direct contact with the pathogen in passive immunity?
No
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What are two features of passive immunity?
- Immunity required immediately - Immunity is not lasting
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How is active immunity enforced?
By stimulating the production of antibodies by the individuals own immune system
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Is direct contact with the pathogen required?
Yes
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What are two features of active immunity?
- Takes time to develop - Is a lasting form of immunity
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What are the two types of active immunity called?
- Natural - Artificial
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What is natural active immunity?
Results from an individual being infected with a disease under normal circumstances
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What is artificial active immunity?
Involves inducing an immune response in an individual without them suffering the symptoms of the disease
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What is an example of passive immunity?
Use of monoclonal antibodies
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What is an example of artificial active immunity?
Vaccination
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Are memory cells produced in vaccination?
Yes
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Give three features of a successful vaccination programme
- Economically available in sufficient quantity to immunise most of vulnerable population (for herd immunity) - Few side-effects - Means of producing, storing and transporting vaccine safely - Trained staff to administer vaccination
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What is herd immunity?
When a large proportion of the population has been vaccinated to make it difficult for the pathogen to spread
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Why is it never possible to vaccinate everybody in a population?
- Babies can't due to their weak immune systems - People who have autoimmune diseases can't be vaccinated - Some people refuse to be vaccinated
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Why is it better to carry all vaccinations out at one time to achieve herd immunity?
To ensure that few people in a population at a given time aren't vaccinated- decreasing the chances of spreading the disease
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Give three reasons as to why a vaccine may not eliminate a disease
- Vaccination fails to induce immunity - Individuals develop disease before immune response and pass it on - Pathogen may mutate frequently that the vaccination no longer protects the individual as antigens change - May be too many types of a -->
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pathogen to develop a vaccine for every one - Pathogens may hide from immune system in cells or out of reach places - People may choose not to be vaccinated
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Give three ethical reasons as to why people may choose not to vaccinate
- Animal testing is often used for vaccines - May have side-effects that cause long term harm - Who will participate in human trials?
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Card 2

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How is passive immunity enforced?

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By the introduction of antibodies into individuals from an outside source

Card 3

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Does there need to be direct contact with the pathogen in passive immunity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are two features of passive immunity?

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Card 5

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How is active immunity enforced?

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