AS Biology Molecules, Biodiversity, Food and Health (OCR F212)

An extensive 70 page revision guide that covers everything in the OCR syllabus for AS unit 2 (F212). Will probably be of some use to those on AQA. Includes extra details to help answer "suggest why" questions. Not what your looking for if you just want some quick notes, but these provide a condensed version of a text book to help with thorough revision. Hope they come in useful! :)

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Biology F212
Contents
Biological Molecules .......................................................................................................................... 1
Water ............................................................................................................................................ 1
State change .............................................................................................................................. 1
Temperature change ................................................................................................................. 1
Cohesion and surface tension .................................................................................................... 1
Solvent ...................................................................................................................................... 1
Transport medium ..................................................................................................................... 1
Reactions ................................................................................................................................... 1
Proteins ......................................................................................................................................... 2
Amino acids ............................................................................................................................... 2
Peptide bonds............................................................................................................................ 2
Primary structure ....................................................................................................................... 3
Secondary structure...................................................................................................................…

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08


Proteins ­ Biuret test ............................................................................................................... 12
Lipids ­ emulsion test .............................................................................................................. 12
Colorimetry ............................................................................................................................. 12
Nucleic Acids ............................................................................................................................... 12
Nucleotides ............................................................................................................................. 13
Organic bases .......................................................................................................................... 13
Polymerisation of nucleotides .................................................................................................. 13
DNA ......................................................................................................................................... 15
Semi-conservative replication .................................................................................................. 16
Genetic code ........................................................................................................................... 16
RNA ......................................................................................................................................... 17
Protein…

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08


CHD ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Cholesterol .................................................................................................................................. 26
High density lipoproteins ......................................................................................................... 26
Low density lipoproteins .......................................................................................................... 26
Cholesterol in the diet ............................................................................................................. 27
Plants as foods............................................................................................................................. 27
Selective breeding ................................................................................................................... 27
Chemicals ................................................................................................................................ 28
Animals as foods.......................................................................................................................... 28
Selective breeding ................................................................................................................... 28
Chemicals ................................................................................................................................ 29
Microorganisms and…

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Primary and secondary immune response ............................................................................... 38
Vaccination.................................................................................................................................. 38
Herd vaccination ...................................................................................................................... 39
Ring vaccination....................................................................................................................... 39
Influenza strains ...................................................................................................................... 39
Types of immunity ................................................................................................................... 39
New medicines ............................................................................................................................ 40
Microorganisms ....................................................................................................................... 40
Plants ...................................................................................................................................... 40
Smoking ...................................................................................................................................... 40
Effect on the gas exchange system ........................................................................................... 40…

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08


Natural selection ..................................................................................................................... 55
Speciation ................................................................................................................................ 56
Evidence for evolution ............................................................................................................. 57
Evolution ................................................................................................................................. 58
Maintaining biodiversity .............................................................................................................. 59




5
©Ross Edwards 2012

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08



Biological Molecules

Water
Hydrogen bonds exist between water molecules
They account for some unusual properties of water
They exist as the oxygen in water is more electronegative than the hydrogen so a permanent
dipole forms
Hydrogen bonds form between the slightly positive hydrogen on one molecule…

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08


Proteins
Make up 50% of the organic matter of a cell
They make up:
o Pores
o Enzymes
o Hormones
o Antibodies
Proteins are large polymers
Their monomers are amino acids

Amino acids
There are 20 different types of amino acid, all with the same basic…

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The peptide bond breaks during a hydrolysis reaction




Water

Condensation




Hydrolysis
Peptide
bond



In a polypeptide, since each amino acid can have one of 20 R groups, the number of possible
polypeptides is immense
For a polypeptide of n subunits, there are 20n possible polypeptides

Role…

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Secondary structure refers to the coiling and pleating of parts of the polypeptide molecule

Tertiary structure
Tertiary structure refers to the final 3D shape of the protein molecule
This forms when the secondary structure itself folds or coils, producing a unique shape
This is vital to…

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Haemoglobin
Has a quaternary structure
Two alpha subunits and two beta
Water soluble globular protein
Used for the transport of oxygen from lungs to tissues for respiration
Each polypeptide contains a haem group containing an Fe2+ ion with a high affinity for oxygen
One oxygen molecule…

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