AS Biology Molecules, Biodiversity, Food and Health (OCR F212)

An extensive 70 page revision guide that covers everything in the OCR syllabus for AS unit 2 (F212). Will probably be of some use to those on AQA. Includes extra details to help answer "suggest why" questions. Not what your looking for if you just want some quick notes, but these provide a condensed version of a text book to help with thorough revision. Hope they come in useful! :)

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Biology F212
Contents
Biological Molecules .......................................................................................................................... 1
Water ............................................................................................................................................ 1
State change .............................................................................................................................. 1
Temperature change ................................................................................................................. 1
Cohesion and surface tension .................................................................................................... 1
Solvent ...................................................................................................................................... 1
Transport medium ..................................................................................................................... 1
Reactions ................................................................................................................................... 1
Proteins ......................................................................................................................................... 2
Amino acids ............................................................................................................................... 2
Peptide bonds............................................................................................................................ 2
Primary structure ....................................................................................................................... 3
Secondary structure................................................................................................................... 3
Tertiary structure ....................................................................................................................... 4
Quaternary structure ................................................................................................................. 4
Globular and fibrous .................................................................................................................. 4
Carbohydrates ............................................................................................................................... 5
Monosaccharides....................................................................................................................... 6
Glucose...................................................................................................................................... 6
Glycosidic bonds ........................................................................................................................ 7
Carbohydrate structures ............................................................................................................ 7
Lipids ............................................................................................................................................. 8
Glycerol ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Fatty acids ................................................................................................................................. 9
Saturation and Unsaturation ...................................................................................................... 9
Triglycerides .............................................................................................................................. 9
Phospholipids .......................................................................................................................... 10
Cholesterol .............................................................................................................................. 11
Food tests .................................................................................................................................... 11
Carbohydrate tests .................................................................................................................. 11

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
Proteins ­ Biuret test ............................................................................................................... 12
Lipids ­ emulsion test .............................................................................................................. 12
Colorimetry ............................................................................................................................. 12
Nucleic Acids ............................................................................................................................... 12
Nucleotides ............................................................................................................................. 13
Organic bases .......................................................................................................................... 13
Polymerisation of nucleotides .................................................................................................. 13
DNA ......................................................................................................................................... 15
Semi-conservative replication .................................................................................................. 16
Genetic code ........................................................................................................................... 16
RNA ......................................................................................................................................... 17
Protein synthesis ..................................................................................................................... 17
Enzymes ...................................................................................................................................... 18
Active site ................................................................................................................................ 18
Lock and key hypothesis .......................................................................................................... 18
Induced fit hypothesis.............................................................................................................. 18
Activation energy..................................................................................................................... 19
Intra and Extra cellular ............................................................................................................. 19
Effect of temperature ..............................................................................................................…read more

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
CHD ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Cholesterol .................................................................................................................................. 26
High density lipoproteins ......................................................................................................... 26
Low density lipoproteins .......................................................................................................... 26
Cholesterol in the diet ............................................................................................................. 27
Plants as foods............................................................................................................................. 27
Selective breeding ................................................................................................................... 27
Chemicals ................................................................................................................................ 28
Animals as foods.......................................................................................................................... 28
Selective breeding ................................................................................................................... 28
Chemicals ................................................................................................................................ 29
Microorganisms and food ............................................................................................................ 29
Advantages of using microorganisms for food manufacture ..................................................... 29
Disadvantages of using microorganisms for food manufacture ................................................ 29
Food spoilage .......................................................................................................................... 29
Health and disease ...................................................................................................................... 30
Parasites and pathogens ..........................................................................................................…read more

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
Primary and secondary immune response ............................................................................... 38
Vaccination.................................................................................................................................. 38
Herd vaccination ...................................................................................................................... 39
Ring vaccination....................................................................................................................... 39
Influenza strains ...................................................................................................................... 39
Types of immunity ................................................................................................................... 39
New medicines ............................................................................................................................ 40
Microorganisms ....................................................................................................................... 40
Plants ...................................................................................................................................... 40
Smoking ...................................................................................................................................... 40
Effect on the gas exchange system ........................................................................................... 40
Effect on the circulatory system ............................................................................................... 41
Epidemiological evidence......................................................................................................... 43
Experimental evidence............................................................................................................. 44
Biodiversity and evolution ............................................................................................................... 44
Biodiversity.................................................................................................................................. 44
Sampling biodiversity................................................................................................................... 44
Importance of sampling to measure biodiversity...................................................................... 44
Selecting the sample area ........................................................................................................…read more

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
Natural selection ..................................................................................................................... 55
Speciation ................................................................................................................................ 56
Evidence for evolution ............................................................................................................. 57
Evolution ................................................................................................................................. 58
Maintaining biodiversity ..............................................................................................................…read more

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
Biological Molecules
Water
Hydrogen bonds exist between water molecules
They account for some unusual properties of water
They exist as the oxygen in water is more electronegative than the hydrogen so a permanent
dipole forms
Hydrogen bonds form between the slightly positive hydrogen on one molecule and a lone pair of
electrons on the oxygen of another molecule
State change
In liquid water, the hydrogen bonds form between molecules
This explains the higher than expected boiling point
As water cools to…read more

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
Proteins
Make up 50% of the organic matter of a cell
They make up:
o Pores
o Enzymes
o Hormones
o Antibodies
Proteins are large polymers
Their monomers are amino acids
Amino acids
There are 20 different types of amino acid, all with the same basic structure
They differ by having different R groups
Some R groups are as simple as an H (glycine) where others have large R groups
The properties of the amino acids are determined by the R…read more

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
The peptide bond breaks during a hydrolysis reaction
Water
Condensation
Hydrolysis
Peptide
bond
In a polypeptide, since each amino acid can have one of 20 R groups, the number of possible
polypeptides is immense
For a polypeptide of n subunits, there are 20n possible polypeptides
Role of enzymes
The formation and breakage of peptide bonds is catalysed by enzymes
Protease enzymes catalyse the breakage of peptide bonds
These are important for several reasons
o To digest foods into amino acids
o…read more

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
Secondary structure refers to the coiling and pleating of parts of the polypeptide molecule
Tertiary structure
Tertiary structure refers to the final 3D shape of the protein molecule
This forms when the secondary structure itself folds or coils, producing a unique shape
This is vital to the function of the protein, shape determines function
Several types of bonds and interactions form the tertiary structure
o Disulphide bridges
Some amino acids such as cysteine contain sulphur in their R group
When two…read more

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Biology F212 13/05/2012 17:08
Haemoglobin
Has a quaternary structure
Two alpha subunits and two beta
Water soluble globular protein
Used for the transport of oxygen from lungs to tissues for respiration
Each polypeptide contains a haem group containing an Fe2+ ion with a high affinity for oxygen
One oxygen molecule binds to each haem group
The haem groups are called prosthetic as they are not formed from amino acids
The majority of the structure is an alpha helix
Collagen
Fibrous protein
Three polypeptide chains wound…read more

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