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Biology and disease.

Rosie Darby

[Pick the date]

[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of
the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary…

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A pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease. Pathogens include bacteria, fungi and viruses.

In order to become a pathogen the microorganism must:

Gain entry
Colonise the tissue of the host
Resist the defence system of the host
Cause damage to the host's tissues.

When a pathogen is transferred…

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Physical activity
High blood pressure
Blood cholesterol levels


The general formula for monosaccharides is C(H2O)n

Disaccharides are formed from two monosaccharide's in a glycocidic bond. This is a condensation

Glucose + glucose = maltose

Fructose +glucose = sucrose

Glucose + Galactose = lactose

The Benedict 's test: tests…

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A peptide bond joins one amino acid to another in a condensation reaction. It results in a dipeptide
and a water molecule.

Structure of proteins:

Primary ­ long repeating chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Secondary ­ the hydrogen in the NH2 group has a positive charge joins…

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The cell surface membrane is described as a fluid-mosaic model:

-fluid: as the phospholipid bilayer can move sideways freely within the plasma membrane

-mosaic: the pattern formed by the intrinsic and extrinsic proteins within the plasma membrane

Functions of the phospholipids in the membrane:

-allow lipid soluble substances to enter…

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Digestion is done mechanically by the movement of teeth and muscle and chemically by hydrolysis.

Breakdown begins in the mouth where the salivary glands produce Amalyse. The saliva contains
buffers to prevent enzymes denaturing and erosion of teeth. Protein digestion begins in the stomach
and ends in the…

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Enzyme Activity

Effects of temperature:

Increase in temperature means particles have more kinetic energy and so will move around
faster this means that there will be more enzyme-substrate collisions.
If the temperature is too high the enzyme denatures. This is because the bonds in the tertiary
and secondary structure are…

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These are things that are required for the enzyme to work properly. They help the active site change
shape to allow the substrate to fit. They do not block the active site; instead they aid the shape and
can sometimes cause a ripple effect which is beneficial to its shape.…

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Important for protein synthesis

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
DNA not in nucleus DNA enclosed in nucleus
Smaller 70S ribosomes Larger 80S ribosomes
No Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus present
Uses food stores for energy Uses mitochondria to produce energy
No cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton
No double membrane bound organelles Double membrane…

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Once it reaches the small intestine is uses flagella
It produces a toxin protein which consists of two parts, one binds to the carbohydrate
receptors and the other opens ion channels which cause CL ions to pass through to the lumen
The loss of chlorine raises the water potential in…




really good :) 



these are amazing, thank you for uploading it! x



This notes are exactly what I've been looking for, thank you ! :)

Got another request tho :L, please do unit 2 as well if u can.

Cheers !! **

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