110 - Vitamins

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What are the functions of vitamin A in the body?
Produces blood clotting proteins and proteins for Bones, Kidneys and lungs
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What are vitamin K requirements?
1g per day
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Sources of vitamin K?
Green leafy veg, vegetables and vegetable oil
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Decribe the process of storing Vitamin K?
80% absorbed in small intestine - Liver and adipose tissue
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What are the affects of deficiency?
Prolonged blood clotting and decrease in wound healing
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Is Vitamin E and antioxidant and what does this mean?
Yes and it means it stops free radical chains which cause cell damage
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Is vitamin E stored?
Yes in adipose tissue and can be excreted of recycled
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What does Vitamin E increase the absorbtion of?
Vitamin A
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What does the RNI of vitamin E depend on?
PUFA intake, increase of PUFA increases vitamin E intake - About 4mg day
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What are the Vitamin E sources?
Vegetable oil, Corn, Soya, Nuts (Almonds)
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What are the deficiency signs of vitamin E?
Fat malabsorption
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What is the process of the formation of vitamin D?
1. Uv photolyses occurs on fat and skin 2. 7-dehydrocholesterol to Previtamin D3 in skins stores 3.Previtamin D3 through thermal isomerism to Vit D3 4. D3 activated by hydroxilation in the Liver and kidneys to Calcitrol
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In what months is vitamin D not produced?
Between October and March in UK
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What factors alter Vitamin D Absorbtion?
Season, latitude, time, age, skin exposed and skin colour
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What roles does Vitamin D play in the body?
Regulates Ca and PO balance and absorbtion in small intestine, bone metabolism, Ca Excretion in Kidneys and muscle function
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Decribe the process of Vitamin D increasing CA levels
Decrease Blood calcium = PTH release = Calcitrol to bones for resorption by mobalised osteoclasts and increases small intestine absorption
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Where is Vitamin D stored?
Liver and adipose tissue
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What is the RNI for vitamin D?
3-4 mg/ day
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Dietary sources for Vitamin D
Oily fish, egg, milk and dairy and forified breakfast cereal and products
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What does a deficienct in Vitamin D cause?
Rickets due to a decrease in Ca and osteomalacia = softening of bones = decalcification
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What does a toxicity in vitamin D cause?
Demineralisation of bones and convulsions
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What are the 3 forms of Vitamin A?
Retinol, Retinal and Retinoic acid
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What are the two types of Vitamin A found in food?
Retinol (Animal) and Beta - Carotene which is converted in the small intestine (Fruit and veg)
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What is Vitamin A required for?
Vision, reproduction, Growth, Cell division and Immunity
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How is vitamin A absorbed?
80-90% Retinol In small intestine and 60% Beta carotene in small intestine
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Where is Vitamin A stored?
The liver
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What is the equation for calculating Retinol equivalents
Retinol Equiv = Retinol + (B - carotene / 6)
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What is the RNI for men and women for Vitamin D?
Men = 700 micro grams / D Women = 600 micro grams /D
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Sources of Retinol?
Fish liver oil, liver, fortified margerine, egg yolk
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Sources of B-carotene?
Dark leafy veg, carrots, sweet potatoes
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Doe cooking damage vitamin A?
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What does a decifiencty of vitmain A cause?
Night blindness, keritinisation of skin, corneal xerosis (Dry an crusts, yellow and cray Cornea) and Bitots Spot
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What does a toxicity in Vitamin A cause?
Hypervitaminosis A, Polar bear liver, acute 30,000 micro grams Adult and 10,000 kids
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What is Vitamin C important for?
Neurotransmitter (Energy transfer in cells), antioxidant and production of Non-Haem iron
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How is Vitmain C absorbed?
Actively transported in Small intestine and sent to all tissue
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Where can the highest concentration of Vitamin C be found?
Lower Kidney and muscle
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Is vitamin C stored?
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What is the RNI for vitamin C and who might this alter for?
40 mg/D and if Prego = 50mg/ Lactating = 70mg/ Smoking = 80-120 mg
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What does vitamin C deficiency cause?
Fatigue, weakness, aching muscle and joints, bleeding gums - scurvy, delayed wound healing
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What is the unit for Vitamin C toxicity?
100g day
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What Is Vitamin B1 known as?
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What is thiamin required for?
Metabolism of carbs (Mainly), fat and alcohol, heart and nerve functioning
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What are the deficency signs of Thiamin?
Beri - Beri = diet high in carbs causing swollen stomach and Wernicke - Korsakov = Diet high in Alchohol
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What is the RNI for Thiamin?
0.4mg/ 1,000 Kcals a day
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What is the name of the active form of Thiamin?
TPP - Decarboylation metabolism
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Where is Thiamin Absorbed and how and how is it stored?
In small intestine and actively and transported in blood
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Sources of thiamin?
White flour, fortified breakfast cereal and nuts
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What is Vitamin B2 known as?
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What is Riboflavin used for?
Oxidative processes in mitochondria chain and breakdown of carbs and RBC production
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What does riboflavin deficiency cause?
Lesions on surface in mouth, skin and genitals and vasculaistion of the corna and glossitis
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What is the RNI of riboflavin?
0.5 - 0.8 mg a day
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How is riboflavin absorbed and how is it transported?
In Proximal small intestine and transported in plasma
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Where is riboflavin excreted?
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What are the sources of riboflavin?
Meat, milk, eggs and fish
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Who are at risk of Riboflavin deficiency?
Chilsten in LEDC, excessive exercise and older people with poor diet
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What is Vitamin B3 known as?
Niacine, Nicotinic acid and nicotinamine
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What is niacine important for?
Fat and carb matabolism, forms NADP for cellular respiration, healthy skin and nerves by decreasing cholosterol
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Where is Niacin absorbed and how and where's it found?
Small intestine by passive if high but usually facilitated and found in plasma
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What is the RNI of Niacin?
6.6 mg / 1000 Kcal
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What can niacin be sympathised from?
Amino acid and tryptophan
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What is the equation of niacin equivalents?
Niacin equiv = Niacin + ( typtophan/60)
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What are the sources of niacin?
Meat and eggs, oats, bananas and chickpeas
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What does Niacin deficiency cause?
Pellagra = photosensitive, diarrhaea, dementia, glossitis and dizziness
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What is Vitamin B5?
Pantothenic acid
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What in Pantothenic acid important for?
Energy metabolism (Synthesis of fatty acids and hormones)
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Where and how is pantothenic acid absorbed and transported?
Small intestine by passive or facilitated diffusion and transported in erythrocytes
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RNI of pantothenic acid
3 - 7mg a day NO DRV
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Sources of pantothenic acid
Liver, Kidney, chicken, egg yolk, peanuts, veg and potatoes
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What does a deficiency in Pantothenic acid?
GI disturbance and sleep disturbance, muscle cramp and hypoglycaemia
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What is Vitami B6 known as?
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What is pyridoxine important for?
Metabolism of protein and amino acids - aids RBC formation, antibody production and NS function
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Where is pyridoxine absorbed, stored an transported?
Absorbed in small intestine and stored in liver and transported bound to albumin
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What is the RNI for pyridoxine?
Based of protein: 15 micro g per g protein Men: 1.4 micro g and Women: 1.2 micro gram
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Sources of pyridoxine?
Cereals, oats, nuts, chicken, milk and beans
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What does pyridoxine deficiency cause?
Increase in CVD risk, cancer, kidney stones and seizure
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What is B12 known as?
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What is Cobalamin important for?
Folate metabolism, maintaining CNS and fatty acids
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What does low cobalamin cause?
Folate and methianine deficiency
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How and where is Cobalamin absorbed and how is it transported and stored?
In small intestine by active transport or slightly passive, stored in Liver and transorted as transcobalamin 2
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How is Cobalamin excreded?
Urine, bile and shedded skin
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What is the RNI for cobalamin?
1.5 micro gram day
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sources of colabamin
Meat, liver, diary, ham, tuna and oysters
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Who is at risk of Colabamin deficiency?
Vegans, those institutionalised and malabsorbtion
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Signs of Colabamin deficiency?
Megaloblastic anaemia and neurological disorders
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What is Vitamin B9 known as?
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What is folate important for?
Metabolism of amino acids and DNA and RNI Synthesis
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What does Folate help prevent?
Neural tube defects
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How much Folate is absorbed in the small intestine?
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What is folate transported as?
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Where is Folate stored?
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What is the RNI for folate?
200 micro g day (300 when pregnant)
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Sources of folate?
Liver, green leafy veg, kidney, fortified breakfast cereal and orange juice
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Signs of folate deficiency
Reduced DNA synthesis - Anaemia and decreased fertility
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Those as risk of folate deficiency
Coeliac, alcoholics and drug taking
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What is Vitamin H?
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What is Biotin important for?
Fatty acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis, hormone and cholesterol synthesis
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What inhibits Biotin absorbtion?
Avadin found in raw eggs and large amounts of B5
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Where in the body can biotin be produced and reabsorbed?
By bacteria in the large intestine and absorbed in colon
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How is Biotin transported
Bound to albumin
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What is the RNI for biotin
10-200 micro grams a day
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Signs of biotin deficiency
Hair loss, rash, Anorexia, conjunctivitis and dermatitis (Skin inflammation)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are vitamin K requirements?


1g per day

Card 3


Sources of vitamin K?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Decribe the process of storing Vitamin K?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the affects of deficiency?


Preview of the front of card 5
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