110 - Energy, carbs, fat and protein

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What is food energy?
Biosynthesis + Heat + Storage
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State the macronutrient energys
Carbs: 3.75, Protein: 4, Fat: 9, Alchohol: 8
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Where does most energy in the diet come from?
31% cereal products
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What are the 4 main energy outputs?
Resting energy expenditure, Exercise, Thermatic effect, BMR
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What is the crude protein equation?
Crude Protein = N2 + 6.25
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What are the 8 healthy living aims?
Base meals on starchy meals, eat fruit + Veg, eat more fish, less salt and sugar, be active and healthy weight, dont get thirsty and dont skip breakfast
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Why do we have the 8 healthy living aims?
Nutrient deficiencies, improve health nd wellbeing, prevent disease and advice with evidence
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What are the EAR energy requirements for men and women?
Men: 2550 Kcal Women: 2000 Kcal
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What are the protein requirements for men and women?
Men: 55.5g Women: 45.5g
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What are the carbohydrate requirements for men and women?
50%
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What are the fat requirements for men and women?
35% Total, 11% saturdated, 14% Poly, 8% Mono, 2% trans
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What are the Nsp requirements for men and women?
18g
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Important roles of protein in the body
Hormones, bones, blood and muscle (Growth and repair)
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What are the functions of protein
Transport, hormonal, enzymes, immunity and buffering
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What are essential amino acids?
Those that cannot be produced by the body
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Name the 8 essential amino acids
Leucine, isoleucine, voline, phenylaline, threonine, methriane, tryptephan and lynine
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Name the simple carbohydrates with examples
Monosaccharide (Glucose, fructose, galactose) and Disaccharide (Sucrose, lactose and maltose)
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Name the complex carbohydrates with examples
Oligosaccharides (Short chain monos from legumes, onions and fennel and fermented in colon)), Polysacchardies (Digestible - starch and glycogen) and Non- digestible (NSP, Cellulose and resistant starches)
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What, biologically, is starch?
Animal energy storage and is long chains of glucose joined by glycosidic bonds
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What is amylose?
Starch, straight chain, insoluble.
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What is amylopectin?
Starch, brached chain, soluble in cold water and can be degraded by enzymes
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Where is starch found?
Grains (Rice and corn), legumes (Peas and beans), tubers (Potatoes) - 25% amylose, 75% amylopectin
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What are dextrins?
Degradation products of starch, broken down polymers - readily usable
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Where is resistant starch digested?
Small intestine
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Name soluble fibre
Pectins
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Name insoluble fibre
cellulose
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What are the 3 important fats in the body?
Triglycerides (Fat cells and adipose tissue), Phospholipids (Body can make them) and sterols (cholesterol)
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What are the componants of phospholipids?
Glycerol, 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
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What is cholesterol a precurser for?
Vitamin D
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Where is cholesterol made?
Liver
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Can you find cholesterol in plants?
No
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What componants make up a triglyceride
Glycerol, fatty acids and carboxyl group
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How are trans fats straightened?
Hydrogenation
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How does hydrogenation work and what affects does it have?
Breaks double bond and saturates fat thus increasing shelf life
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What are the essential fatty acids and sources
Linoleic (Meat, eggs nuts and spread) and alpha linoleic (Green leafy veg, meat, oils and nuts)
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What are the requirements of the essential fatty acids
linoleic = 11.2g and alpha linoleic = 1.6g
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What determines the use of lipoproteins
Apolipoproteins
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What are the 2 types of lipoproteins
HDL and LDL
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

State the macronutrient energys

Back

Carbs: 3.75, Protein: 4, Fat: 9, Alchohol: 8

Card 3

Front

Where does most energy in the diet come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 4 main energy outputs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the crude protein equation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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