110 - Minerals

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How much zinc does an adult approximately contain?
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Where can zinc be found?
Skeletal muscle, bone and skin - but high turn over
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What is zinc involved in?
Bone metabolism, digestion, antioxidant and oxygen transport, immunity and structural proteins
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Where is zinc absorbed?
Small intestine passively
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What impairs absorbtion?
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How is zinc transported?
Binds to albumin
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What are the sources of zinc?
Meat, cereals and liver
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What is the RNI for zinc?
Men = 9.5 mg Women = 7mg
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What are the signs of zinc deficiency?
Growth retardation, Dermatitis, hair loss and delayed wound healing
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What is copper used for?
co-factor for several enzymes and growth - RCB and WBC maturation, iron transport and brain development
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How much copper does an adult contain?
80mg - 40% muscle, 15% liver, 10% brain and 6% blood
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Sources of copper
shellfish, offal and nuts
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RNI for copper
1.2 mg day
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Signs of copper deficiency
Hair and skin hyperpigmentation, increased CVD risk, increase in LDL, decrease skeletal and mental development
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Who is at risk of copper deficiency?
CF, coeliacs and chronic diarrhoea, menkes disease (Cant absorb copper)
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What is the disease where copper accumulates in the eyes?
Wilsons disease
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How much manganese is in the body?
10 - 20g
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Why is manganese important?
Enzyme activator and increases Ca and Po absorbtion
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What inhibits manganese?
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Sources of Manganese
cereal, veg, tea and fruit
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RNI of Manganese
1.4 mg day
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Signs of Manganese deficiency
Decrease in blood lipid = weight loss, growth retardation and skin rash
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Signs of Manganese toxicity
Manganic madness
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Why is Fluoride important?
? role in bone metabolism ? = new bone formation and enamel on teeth - strength
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What % of fluoride absorbed in food?
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What inhibits action of Fluoride?
Ca - stored in bones and teeth and controlled by kidneys and transported by albumin
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Sources of fluoride
Tooth paste, water and tea
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RNI of Fluoride
0.2 - 2.8 mg day
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Signs of fluoride toxicity
Mottling teeth and calcification of ligments
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Importance of Selenium
Important to 25 proteins that are antioxidants, involved in DNA synthesis and iodide metabolism
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Where can selenium be found?
Kidneys, liver, muscle, RBC and plasma
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Where is selenium regulated?
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What do food sources depend upon with selenium levels?
Protein type and soil type
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RNI of selenium
Men: 75 micro gam Women: 60 micro gram
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What is selenium deficiency compensated by?
Vit E
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What are the risks of Selenium deficiency?
Increased risk of CHD and cancer
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Signs of Selenium Toxicity
Brittle nails and hair, skin lesions and garlic odour breath
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Why is iodide important?
Maintains synthesis of throxine and T3, Development of foetal NS and connective tissue, metabolism, body temp, growth and reproduction
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What is the thyroid controlled by?
TSH produced by pituitary gland
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What is iodide carried in the body by?
Serum proteins
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RNI of iodide
140 micro gram day
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Iodide sources
Milk, Marine fish, shellfish, meat and eggs
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Signs of Iodide deficiency
Thyroid gland enlarges = hypothyroidism = weight gain AND Goitre = where goitrogens compete with Ca, Mg, Ma and Fl
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Important of Chromium
Increase affects of insulin as may increase insulin receptors, lipid metabolism and increase HDL cholesterol
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Chromium absorbtion rate
0.5 - 2 %
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Where is chromium excreted and transported?
Urine and plasma proteins
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Sources of chromium
Meat, grains and nuts
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RNI of chromium
25 micro grams day
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Signs of chromium deficiency
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Signs of chromium deficiency
Renal nercrosis
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Importance of Molybdenum
co factor for 2 major enzymes, protein synthesis, metabolism and growth
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Amount of Molybdenum absorbed
25 - 93%
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RNI of molybdenum
50 - 400 mico grams / g
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Sources of Molybdenum
Veg in alkaline soils - legumes and cauliflower
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What affects Molybdenum absorbtion
Copper and sulfate
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Sign of Molybdenum deficiency
Metabolic disorder, development retardation and neurological disorders
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What % of mineral mass does Calcium makes up?
40% = 1.2kg
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Fuctions of calcium
Structure and bone strength, Bone mineralisation, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, clotting and reactions
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Where is calcium absorbed and what increased absorbtion?
Duodenum in small intestine, increased by calcitrol, lactose, proteins and acidity
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What is calcium inhibited by?
oxolates, phytic acid and unabsorbed fat
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Where is calcium stored?
Intracellularly, blood and Bone
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Sources of Calcium?
Milk and milk products = Semi skimmed and fortified products
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RNI for calcium
Adult: 700mgD 11-18: 1000mg/D
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What decreases blood calcium levels and how?
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Sign of calcium deficiency
Osteoporosis and rickets
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Those at risk of calcium deficiency
Vegans, lactose intolerant, steroids and coeliacs
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Importance of Phosphorus
Rigity and strength in bones and teeth, energy in metabolism, phospholipids and nucleid acid
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Where is phosphorus absorbed, how and what %?
Small intestine, active transport and 60%
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What increases phosphorus absorbtion?
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What are phosphorus levels controlled by?
Kidneys through PTH
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RNI of phosphorus
700 mg/ D
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Sources of phosphorus
Milk, cheese, meat, eggs and nuts
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Importance of Magnesium
Bone development, nerve function, muscle function, cell permability and Ca metabolism
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Percentage magnesium absorbed, where and how?
20 - 70%, Small intestive and Passively
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What are magnesium level controlled by?
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What enhances Magnesium absorbtion?
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What inhibits Magnesium absorbtion?
Phophate, protein andd fibre rich foods
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RNI of magnesium
Men: 300 mg Women: 270 mg
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Sources of magnesium
Green leafy veg and legumes
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Signs of magnesium deficiency
Muscle weakness
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What are the 2 forms of iron?
Ferrous iron ( FE2+) And ferric iron (FE3+)
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Function of Iron
Oxygen transport, metabolism, immunity, Brain function
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What increases Iron absorbtion?
Haem iron, RBC demand, low stores and vit c
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What decreases iron absorbtion?
full stores, excess Ca and Zn and oxalic and phytic acid
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How is iron stored in the body?
Ferritin in the liver, bone marrow
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RNI for iron
Men: 11.3 below 19 and over 8.7g Women: 14.8g 15-50
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Stages of Iron depletion
1. Iron depletion ( decrease in iron ) 2. Iron deficient erythropoiesis ( Decrease in RBC ) 3. Iron deficiency anaemia ( No stored iron, decrease in RBC size and decrease in Haemoglobin)
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Those at risk of iron deficiency
Preganant women, vegans, teenage girls
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Signs of iron deficiency
Pale skin, breathlessness, physical effort and fatigue
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What is alchohol?
An organic compound containing an OH group
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What is ethanol?
2 carbon compound from alcohol, produced from fermenting sugar
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Where is alcohol absorbed?
Stomach and GI tract
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When are peak levels of alcohol present?
1 hour after comsuming
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What is the process of alcohol break down in the liver?
Ethanol - acetaldehyde - acetate - acetyl CoA - FA
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Factors affecting alcohol metabolism
Speed consumed, age and Gender
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How do you calculate alcohol?
%ABV X 0.79 = g alcohol / 100ml
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How much is 1 unit in mls
10 ml
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RNI of alcohol
Men: 3-4 unit/ d Women: 2-3 units/ d
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Health effects of alcohol
CVD, Cancer, osteoporosis and Liver failure
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Card 2


Where can zinc be found?


Skeletal muscle, bone and skin - but high turn over

Card 3


What is zinc involved in?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Where is zinc absorbed?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What impairs absorbtion?


Preview of the front of card 5
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