110 - Minerals

How much zinc does an adult approximately contain?
1 of 99
Where can zinc be found?
Skeletal muscle, bone and skin - but high turn over
2 of 99
What is zinc involved in?
Bone metabolism, digestion, antioxidant and oxygen transport, immunity and structural proteins
3 of 99
Where is zinc absorbed?
Small intestine passively
4 of 99
What impairs absorbtion?
5 of 99
How is zinc transported?
Binds to albumin
6 of 99
What are the sources of zinc?
Meat, cereals and liver
7 of 99
What is the RNI for zinc?
Men = 9.5 mg Women = 7mg
8 of 99
What are the signs of zinc deficiency?
Growth retardation, Dermatitis, hair loss and delayed wound healing
9 of 99
What is copper used for?
co-factor for several enzymes and growth - RCB and WBC maturation, iron transport and brain development
10 of 99
How much copper does an adult contain?
80mg - 40% muscle, 15% liver, 10% brain and 6% blood
11 of 99
Sources of copper
shellfish, offal and nuts
12 of 99
RNI for copper
1.2 mg day
13 of 99
Signs of copper deficiency
Hair and skin hyperpigmentation, increased CVD risk, increase in LDL, decrease skeletal and mental development
14 of 99
Who is at risk of copper deficiency?
CF, coeliacs and chronic diarrhoea, menkes disease (Cant absorb copper)
15 of 99
What is the disease where copper accumulates in the eyes?
Wilsons disease
16 of 99
How much manganese is in the body?
10 - 20g
17 of 99
Why is manganese important?
Enzyme activator and increases Ca and Po absorbtion
18 of 99
What inhibits manganese?
19 of 99
Sources of Manganese
cereal, veg, tea and fruit
20 of 99
RNI of Manganese
1.4 mg day
21 of 99
Signs of Manganese deficiency
Decrease in blood lipid = weight loss, growth retardation and skin rash
22 of 99
Signs of Manganese toxicity
Manganic madness
23 of 99
Why is Fluoride important?
? role in bone metabolism ? = new bone formation and enamel on teeth - strength
24 of 99
What % of fluoride absorbed in food?
25 of 99
What inhibits action of Fluoride?
Ca - stored in bones and teeth and controlled by kidneys and transported by albumin
26 of 99
Sources of fluoride
Tooth paste, water and tea
27 of 99
RNI of Fluoride
0.2 - 2.8 mg day
28 of 99
Signs of fluoride toxicity
Mottling teeth and calcification of ligments
29 of 99
Importance of Selenium
Important to 25 proteins that are antioxidants, involved in DNA synthesis and iodide metabolism
30 of 99
Where can selenium be found?
Kidneys, liver, muscle, RBC and plasma
31 of 99
Where is selenium regulated?
32 of 99
What do food sources depend upon with selenium levels?
Protein type and soil type
33 of 99
RNI of selenium
Men: 75 micro gam Women: 60 micro gram
34 of 99
What is selenium deficiency compensated by?
Vit E
35 of 99
What are the risks of Selenium deficiency?
Increased risk of CHD and cancer
36 of 99
Signs of Selenium Toxicity
Brittle nails and hair, skin lesions and garlic odour breath
37 of 99
Why is iodide important?
Maintains synthesis of throxine and T3, Development of foetal NS and connective tissue, metabolism, body temp, growth and reproduction
38 of 99
What is the thyroid controlled by?
TSH produced by pituitary gland
39 of 99
What is iodide carried in the body by?
Serum proteins
40 of 99
RNI of iodide
140 micro gram day
41 of 99
Iodide sources
Milk, Marine fish, shellfish, meat and eggs
42 of 99
Signs of Iodide deficiency
Thyroid gland enlarges = hypothyroidism = weight gain AND Goitre = where goitrogens compete with Ca, Mg, Ma and Fl
43 of 99
Important of Chromium
Increase affects of insulin as may increase insulin receptors, lipid metabolism and increase HDL cholesterol
44 of 99
Chromium absorbtion rate
0.5 - 2 %
45 of 99
Where is chromium excreted and transported?
Urine and plasma proteins
46 of 99
Sources of chromium
Meat, grains and nuts
47 of 99
RNI of chromium
25 micro grams day
48 of 99
Signs of chromium deficiency
49 of 99
Signs of chromium deficiency
Renal nercrosis
50 of 99
Importance of Molybdenum
co factor for 2 major enzymes, protein synthesis, metabolism and growth
51 of 99
Amount of Molybdenum absorbed
25 - 93%
52 of 99
RNI of molybdenum
50 - 400 mico grams / g
53 of 99
Sources of Molybdenum
Veg in alkaline soils - legumes and cauliflower
54 of 99
What affects Molybdenum absorbtion
Copper and sulfate
55 of 99
Sign of Molybdenum deficiency
Metabolic disorder, development retardation and neurological disorders
56 of 99
What % of mineral mass does Calcium makes up?
40% = 1.2kg
57 of 99
Fuctions of calcium
Structure and bone strength, Bone mineralisation, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, clotting and reactions
58 of 99
Where is calcium absorbed and what increased absorbtion?
Duodenum in small intestine, increased by calcitrol, lactose, proteins and acidity
59 of 99
What is calcium inhibited by?
oxolates, phytic acid and unabsorbed fat
60 of 99
Where is calcium stored?
Intracellularly, blood and Bone
61 of 99
Sources of Calcium?
Milk and milk products = Semi skimmed and fortified products
62 of 99
RNI for calcium
Adult: 700mgD 11-18: 1000mg/D
63 of 99
What decreases blood calcium levels and how?
64 of 99
Sign of calcium deficiency
Osteoporosis and rickets
65 of 99
Those at risk of calcium deficiency
Vegans, lactose intolerant, steroids and coeliacs
66 of 99
Importance of Phosphorus
Rigity and strength in bones and teeth, energy in metabolism, phospholipids and nucleid acid
67 of 99
Where is phosphorus absorbed, how and what %?
Small intestine, active transport and 60%
68 of 99
What increases phosphorus absorbtion?
69 of 99
What are phosphorus levels controlled by?
Kidneys through PTH
70 of 99
RNI of phosphorus
700 mg/ D
71 of 99
Sources of phosphorus
Milk, cheese, meat, eggs and nuts
72 of 99
Importance of Magnesium
Bone development, nerve function, muscle function, cell permability and Ca metabolism
73 of 99
Percentage magnesium absorbed, where and how?
20 - 70%, Small intestive and Passively
74 of 99
What are magnesium level controlled by?
75 of 99
What enhances Magnesium absorbtion?
76 of 99
What inhibits Magnesium absorbtion?
Phophate, protein andd fibre rich foods
77 of 99
RNI of magnesium
Men: 300 mg Women: 270 mg
78 of 99
Sources of magnesium
Green leafy veg and legumes
79 of 99
Signs of magnesium deficiency
Muscle weakness
80 of 99
What are the 2 forms of iron?
Ferrous iron ( FE2+) And ferric iron (FE3+)
81 of 99
Function of Iron
Oxygen transport, metabolism, immunity, Brain function
82 of 99
What increases Iron absorbtion?
Haem iron, RBC demand, low stores and vit c
83 of 99
What decreases iron absorbtion?
full stores, excess Ca and Zn and oxalic and phytic acid
84 of 99
How is iron stored in the body?
Ferritin in the liver, bone marrow
85 of 99
RNI for iron
Men: 11.3 below 19 and over 8.7g Women: 14.8g 15-50
86 of 99
Stages of Iron depletion
1. Iron depletion ( decrease in iron ) 2. Iron deficient erythropoiesis ( Decrease in RBC ) 3. Iron deficiency anaemia ( No stored iron, decrease in RBC size and decrease in Haemoglobin)
87 of 99
Those at risk of iron deficiency
Preganant women, vegans, teenage girls
88 of 99
Signs of iron deficiency
Pale skin, breathlessness, physical effort and fatigue
89 of 99
What is alchohol?
An organic compound containing an OH group
90 of 99
What is ethanol?
2 carbon compound from alcohol, produced from fermenting sugar
91 of 99
Where is alcohol absorbed?
Stomach and GI tract
92 of 99
When are peak levels of alcohol present?
1 hour after comsuming
93 of 99
What is the process of alcohol break down in the liver?
Ethanol - acetaldehyde - acetate - acetyl CoA - FA
94 of 99
Factors affecting alcohol metabolism
Speed consumed, age and Gender
95 of 99
How do you calculate alcohol?
%ABV X 0.79 = g alcohol / 100ml
96 of 99
How much is 1 unit in mls
10 ml
97 of 99
RNI of alcohol
Men: 3-4 unit/ d Women: 2-3 units/ d
98 of 99
Health effects of alcohol
CVD, Cancer, osteoporosis and Liver failure
99 of 99

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Where can zinc be found?


Skeletal muscle, bone and skin - but high turn over

Card 3


What is zinc involved in?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Where is zinc absorbed?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What impairs absorbtion?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Human Biology resources:

See all Human Biology resources »See all Minerals resources »