Section 1: Competition for coasts
In 1990 around 30% of the world's population lived on the coast, by 2002 this had risen to 40%. So what attracts them?
-Dramatic scenery attracts tourists.
- Natural harbours allow easy access for imports and exports of raw materials - this in return attracts industries to the area.
- Estuaries allow easy access for ship = ports develop.
- Coastal ecosystems have high biodiversity e.g. Great Barrier Reef.
- Rich deposits in deltas make the soil fertile for agriculture.
- Increase in fishing, tourism and port development cause an increase in population as they are attracted by employment opportunities.
- The land is often flat so homes and businesses can be built easily.
How have these factors shaped the development and growth of contrasting crowded coasts over time?
Named Case Study: UK Coast - Bournemouth
- Bournemouth's population has been slowly increasing since 1990, from approximately 157,000 residents, to highs of nearly 164,000 in the last decade.
- 2002 saw the highest number of residents in the sea-side town, with 163,700 residents settling.
- Just 62% of people living there are of economically active age.
People who live in Bournemouth are likely to be cosmopolitan sharers or students living in small accommodation. Lifestyles are active, socially and physically. There are many coffee shops and theatres, which are most exploited in the area, in addition to music establishments such as Nightclubs and Gig venues.
Origins of growth and Attractions:
1) Accessibility - In the Victorian period, a railway linking Borunemouth to London. Improved accessibility meant that wokring class people could travel to Bournemouth and this saw the growth of mass tourism and exponential population growth.
2) Regeneration - Has attracted young people, as has the University facilites (both campus and the fact that over 1/3 of homes are purposely built for the University's intake of students).
3) Economy - There is now a well established economy in Bournemouth, where graduates can find work and where housing is relatively cheap in comparison to the rest of the UK.
As stated above, tourist attractions include the beach and sea which can be used for various recreational activities, as well as fairly cheap accommodation for people on a budget when on holiday. There are vast amounts of B&B's and seasonal businesses in the summer, as Bournemouth is a very popular summer holiday destination in the UK. It has it's own micro-climate, meaning it is slightly warmer…