• Dement and Kleitman (1957) demonstrated a link between REM sleep and dreaming.
• How do you think they measured this?
• They woke participants up at times when their brain waves were characteristic of REM sleep and found that Ps were highly likely to report dreaming. (About 80% of the time)
• However – dreaming was also reported outside REM sleep (about 20% of the time, less vivid)
• What is a problem with this research method?
• Correlation – can we establish a cause?
• Sample – mostly men and small sample
Found that the control of REM and NREM lies in the ascending
reticular formation (a network of millions of neurons buried
deep in the brain).
Jouvet used techniques such as lesions and electrical stimulation of the brain
and found the two critical areas of the brain are:
NREM – raphe nuclei
REM – locus coeruleus
In addition, he found that certain neurotransmitters were involved in
NREM – serotonin
REM - noradrenaline
Would you say this is reductionist? Why?
Sleep and the brain
• The Hypothalamus appears to control non-REM sleep. It seems to keep a track of how long we have been awake and how large our sleep debt is.
• The SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) a special group of cells in the hypothalamus, receives information about light from the eyes and tells the brain when it is safe to sleep.
• Rises in…