Second order elections


Voting behaviour

  • SO elections where main parties campaign less vigorously, and media not very enthusiastic. 
  • Some voters see them as less important, use them as an opportunity to punish governing parties. 
  • May choose not to vote or different party. 
  • Normally low turnout., anti-gov swing, and high support for smaller parties. 


Election held between elections to fill a seat that has become vacant. Long history of votality- many do not vote. Seen as opportunity to show dissatisfaction with the


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