- SO elections where main parties campaign less vigorously, and media not very enthusiastic.
- Some voters see them as less important, use them as an opportunity to punish governing parties.
- May choose not to vote or different party.
- Normally low turnout., anti-gov swing, and high support for smaller parties.
Election held between elections to fill a seat that has become vacant. Long history of votality- many do not vote. Seen as opportunity to show dissatisfaction with the…