- Santiagos location in a valley, coastal ranges to the east, Andes to the west, along with cold winters
- Increase in population (1.5 m in 1960 - 5.5 m in 2005), and economic boom.
- During winter, cold air sinks into valley, whilst warm air is replaced above, temperature inversion, trapping pollutants.
- Health effected, some pollutants are carconegenic.
- average car ownership…
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