F762 urban change case studies

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 20-02-14 11:53

IPSWICH/SUNDERLAND - factors controlling land-use

ENVIRONEMENTAL FACTORS 

  • TOPOGRAPHY of land - low lying ground (low status + idustry) above sea level (high status)
  • RIVERS - industry (neptune key), terraced housing, ship building (wharfs), stoke bridge 
  • FLOOD PLAIN - stoke park housing developments, 
  • COASTLINES - high status, docking, tourism (SUNDERLAND)
  • NATURAL/BUILT protection - christchurch park, fossilised land uses (cementeries)

POLITICAL FACTORS 

  • SOCIAL HOUSING - cheap rated accomodation (chantry 
  • COUNCIL STRUCTURE PLANS - map of vision of next 10 years 
  • ECONOMIC INVESTMENT - neptune marina + uni renovated (brownfield sites)
  • TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT - crown court moved out of centre 

ECONOMIC FACTORS 

  • BID RENT-commercial areas in centre (tavern st.)+housing developers pushed out (cheaper)
  • DEINDUSTRIALISATION - flour mills at neptune marinas 
  • AGGLOMERATION - activities attract eachother (marina flat land + water) 
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SUNDERLAND land use

ENVIRONMENTAL 

  • RIVER WEAR - flat land all expansion - CBD on south bank - lowest bridging point 
  • COAST - industry docks (agglomeration) + north sea limits expnasion 
  • SLOPES - expansion N + S on flat land (plateau)
  • PROTECTED AREAS - nature (tunstall hills) + cementeries 

ECONOMIC 

  • LAND PRICES - change with density (cheaper in low density - Millfield)
  • TRANSPORT- arterial/ribbon from south west direction 
  • 19TH CENTURY + - people commute using cars 

POLITICAL 

  • GREEN BELT - north of sunderland 
  • SOCIAL HOUSING - Pennywell 
  • DEINDUSTRIALISATION - ship building moved to POLAND - caused regeneration 
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managing urban change - water pollution

RIVER YANGTZE, CHINA 

CAUSES

  • large scale industrial + urban devlopment - Chongqing pop. 20M 
  • inland shipping discharge + fuel/waste - freight carried to urban areas 
  • industrial chemical discharge 
  • urban rubbish discharge 

EFFECTS 

  • reuction in water drinking quality 
  • EUTROPHICATION - chemicals --> algae bloom --> les O2 --> fish die 

MAPOCHO RIVER - SANTIAGO, CHILE 

CAUSES - open sewer - chemicals (lead, copper, chrome) neurological damage/ cancer 

EFFECTS - 15% sewage effluent treated, 2009 $300M clean up - send sewage to treament 

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managing urban change - solid waste disposal

LONDON 

  • industry - 6.4 M tonnes 
  • construction - 6.1 M tonnes 
  • household - 4.4 M tonnes 
  • hazardous 0.4 M tonnes 

ISSUES

  • pop. growth of 800,000 between 2005 - 2016 
  • 76% of municipal household waste exported destinations up to 120km in SE England 
  • 4/18 located in london 
  • outside centre exportion = INC. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT 

FUTURE TARGETS 

  • needs to acheive 6x current levels of recycling
  • reduce amount of non biodegradable MHW to 75% of 1995 levels 
  • could face fines of up to hundreds of millions 
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EAST LEEDS - urban decay in MEDC

HAREHILLS INNER CITY - 1km east of CBD + 429th most deprived ward in england 

  • 2006 - 2/5 household on benefits / 8% unemployed / 45% adults without qualifications 
  • low income = attract high % of ethnic minority groups 
  • diet poor + abscence of fresh food + high density (120 - 130 persons/hectare) 

SEACROFT OUTSKIRTS - 9000 pop., built after ww2 house those displaced from inner city 

  • 5% of most deprived wards in England 
  • criminal damage / drugs + gang culture / teenage pregnancies (child poverty) 

REDEVELOPMENT SCHEMES - EAST LEEDS 

  • £1Bn E + SE leeds regenration project 
  • £15M neighbourhood renewal fund - poorest SOA's 
  • HAREHILLS - demolish worst housing / st James' child hospital / more primary schools 
  • SEACROFT - 
  • seacroft centre - opened 1964 then demolished- TESCO main tennant provided services + employed 320 in 1km area + intro. free 'hail + ride' scheme for acess to seacroft centre 
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KIBERIA - urban growth/decay in LEDC

KIBERIA SLUM, NAIROBI, KENYA (1,000,00 pop.) 

URBAN GROWTH 

  • 6% of Narobi land but 60% of cities pop. 
  • due to rural - urban migration + natural pop. growth (push/pull factors)
  • KENYA - 1982 - 2002 (6.3% growth/year)

HOUSING - avg. 12ft x 12ft

  • 43% have natural earth floors + 1% built from brick (mostly timber, polythene, iron, mud)

ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION

  • 44% regular income with 50% unemployed 
  • 70% in wage employment - informal work 
  • 25% self employed 
  • 50% houses on >$10.5 a day 
  • popular businesses are self run services 
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CURITIBA - sustainable urban living

  • city with pop. 2 million / 1000 km from Rio de Janeiro
  • was agricultural + avoided urbanisation problems 

SOLUTIONS 

  • RECYCLING + GARBAGE - separate rubbish to organic/inorganic + recycles 2/3 of waste 
  • PARKS - flooding problem - water diverted to lake (wet season) + brownfield sites only used for development 

TRANSPORT SYSTEM 

  • different routes with dedicated bus lanes + one fare (quicker) 
  • performs as well as underground system costing 500x more 
  • carry 4000 passengers a day + only 10% of earning on transport 

URBAN PLANNING - built mall in 72 hours to avoid planning objections (streets safer + no traffic)

GREEN EXCHANGE - green belt overproducing so shanty towns (garbage trucks coulnt reach) given incentive to bring rubbish down (food / bus tickets in return)

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LONDON - transport management

CONJESTION CHARGES 

  • vehicles photographed + £10 
  • no charge on weekends, public holidays, between 18:00 + 07:00

BARCLAYS BIKE 

  • different charges for amount of time rented 

LOW EMISSIONS ZONES 

  • 2008 - encouraged heavy diesel vehicles to become cleaner 

RED ROUTES 

  • 5% of roads carry 30% of traffic (cant stop)
  • £130 penalty if bus lane or parking + loading contravention 
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SANTIAGO, CHILE - atmospheric pollution

  • second largest city for suspended particles (210 ppm) 
  • second largest SO2 levels (38ppm) 

PHYSICAL REASONS 

  • cold air displaces warm air - temperature inversion traps pollutants 
  • high pressure means winds cant disperse pollutants 

HUMAN REASONS 

  • motor vehicles + industries (smelters + power plants) emit NOx, CO2, CO, O3
  • motor vehicles emit 3/4 of NOx + 1/2 of all organic compounds 
  • INC TRAFFIC = INC. CAR OWNERSHIP 
  • 320 per 1000 households (1997) ----> 560 per 1000 households (2001)
  • heavily rely on 11,000 diesel buses 
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LONDON- managing pollution

CLEAN AIR ACT - 1956 

  • great smog of 1952 - respiratory diseases killed 12,000 people 
  • relocation of heavy polluting industry + controlled types of fuel (gas not coal)

TODAY 

  • KENSIGTON - smoke controlled area 
  • smokeless coal + monitored by enviro. health officers 

TRAFFIC 

  • conjestion charges / low emissions zone / barclays bike / red routes 

VEHICLE MANAGEMENT

  • catalytic converters / hybrids vehicles 

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT

  • flue gas desulfurisation - limestone slurry where SO2 passed through removed (90% less)
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LONDON - fall of the docklands

1960 (60,000 workers)-->1980 (0 workders) due to wider trends in world maritime sector : 

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 

  • containerisation + role-on role-off transfers (cut costs 2/3) - still used workers to unload 
  • large cargo ships (50,000 tonnes+) - couldnt cater for this size + roads for modern lorries 

COMPETITION 

  • continental ports for world trade - Rotterdam 
  • UK ports for European trade- Harwich , Felixstowe 

failed to RESPOND to challenges due to:

INEFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT

  • no 1 organisation responsible for running port - chaotic, competive + over divided 

POOR LABOUR RELATIONS 

  • casual working - casual earnings on arrival of ships + many strikes (resistance to change)
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DONGTAN - sustainable cities (ECOPOLIS)

SITE : -     Chongming island / 2010 (50,000 pop.) --> 2020 (80,000 pop.) / development space  -     45 km north of Shanghai PLANNING : -     british engineering group / shanghai industrial / chinese gov.  HOUSING : -     affordable / under 8 storeys / sustainable materials / low rise buildings (turf on roof) POWER GENERATION : -     solar powered water taxis / solar powered buildings / local food sourcing / wind turbines   TRANSPORT :  -     towns connect by cycle + public transport routes / 7min walk maximum to bus stom  WASTE :  -     sewage processed for irrigation + composting / no landfills / clean fuel vehicles  ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT :  -     keep footprint to 2.2 ha per person / grey water / reduce communters (self sufficient) WHY NEEDED : -    China 20/30 most polluted cities in the world / urbanisation / reduce other city pressures  -    Shanghai pop. 17M rise to 23M in 2020 

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