AS Geography case studies

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  • Created on: 17-05-16 16:06

Sustainable tourism- El Pbutano

4 Full time workers

16 guests at one time

300ha, manageable enviroment

Bamboo sourced localls- fast growing, reinvests into local economy

48,000 UAD anually, 50% goes to local communities

Rubbish taken away by guests of of the site

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Sustainable tourism- Antartica

Commision for the conservation of Antartic marine life- protects Antartics marine life

Onshore visits have been limited

Visitors have to keep a minimum of 10 meters from animals

All rubbish taken back to the ships

Ships have to provide equptment to clean up and potential oil spills

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opportunities created by tourism- Norway

7th largest producer of oil

3rd largest exploiter of oil

100,000 USD GDP Per capita

HDI of 0.944

99% Hydro electric power

Piper under the pavement heated t 36'c to melt snow

150 billion USD in oil revenues anually

life expectancy of 81 years

11th best health care in the world

oil profits are taxed at 78%

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The impacts of tourism- Kenya

Positives

  • Tourism contributed 15% to the GDP
  • 23 national parks, withpaid entry to maintain them
  • 700,000 visits anually
  • 11% of paid employment

Negatives

  • soil erosion from 4x4 use
  • only 15% of money goes to kenyan locals
  • 5 species of turtle are endagered due to water pollution
  • Foreign companies use their own skilled workers, so locals do low paid jobs
  • Often increases house prices in the areas of the hotels
  • 90% of tourists visit south east
  • Unreliable jobs- dropped by 2/3 in 1997
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Impacts of tourism- St. Kitts and Nevis

Population of just 48,000

280,000 toursits anually

Tourism is now the leading economic sector after the last sugar plantation closed in 2005

40% stay over night, and 60% visit for the day

Marriot hotel chain opened in 2002

98% of population is now educated

GDP per capita 12,000 USD

60% roads now tarmacked

Brimstone hill fortress, is a national heratige site.

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Socio-econoic problems with urban areas- East Leed

55% people do not own a car

41% council housing

43% people not economically active

38% people without central heating

45% people have no education

12% people say they are in poor health

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Characteristics of urban areas- Sunderland

The CBD is located in South Bank

The high density low quality housing is found in the inner city zone

Low quality housing used to home ship builders and coal workers

Secotral growth led to increased infrastructure such as roads

Downhill, is an area of slum housing

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Environmental issues with urban change- Santiago d

Mapucho river used by industry to dump zinc and iron waste

71% of sewege is treated, the rest is dumped into the river

3rd most poluted city in south America

less than 15% of waste is recycled

13.4 million hectacres of forest used anually

42% of Chiles cars are in Santiago

21% increase in car sales

4.3 million bus trips per day

Transantiago

45km metro expansion

1,000 new, less pollutant busses

62km of new road

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Land use in urban areas- Buenos Aires

Mega city

Direct access to the atlantic ocean (good for trade) flat land

Subway system does not extend into the suburbs

Plaza De Mayo, is the origional nucleus (cathederal, Presidential palace)

Economic status decline from the north to the south

Became independant from Spain in 1816

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waste management- London

Avarage use of 150 litres of water per day

Avarage person produces 22 metric tonnes of household waste per year

Air pollution linked to 1/12 deaths

Management

  • Incinerators on outskirts of the city
  • Barges on the river Themes
  • 109miles squared of landfill
  • southwark recycling facility- Biomass compost machenes, compost then sold.
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Tourism and economic development- UK

41,000 USD GDP

HDI 0.9

London is the main attraction with 16 million tourists anually

Controveral plans to expand Heathrow airport

66 million visits abroad in 2005- France and Spain spending a total of 32 billion

30 million tourists visited the UK in 2005 spending 14 billion

2 million jobs in the tourist industry

2nd largest economic sector in London

29% of jobs in Cornwall relate to tourism

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China- A new tourist destination

Reasons Chinas toursim has increased

  • Rise in disposable incomes
  • Longer holidays
  • more 'Aproved destination status' to counteries such as UK

31 million Chineese travelled abroad

Estimated number to reach 100 million by 2020

Inbound tourism

  • Terra Cotta warriors in Xian
  • Great wall
  • Yangtze river

72 million emplyed in wider tourism industry

22 million inbound tourists in 2005

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Issues with energy exploitation- Three Gorges Dam

Issues

  • Water risen by 25 meters
  • 400 million live in the basin
  • 1,200 villages flooded
  • 47 fish species at risk
  • 30,000 HA of farmland lost
  • 14 million had to be relocated
  • sediment carried by river has fallen by 50%
  • 25 billion to build

Positives

  • create 65 billion in revenue
  • produce 18,000 MW of electricity
  • contol flooding
  • Provide 10% of Chinas electricity sustainably
  • 1 million still not been relocated
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Issues with energy exploitation- Three Gorges Dam

Issues

  • Water risen by 25 meters
  • 400 million live in the basin
  • 1,200 villages flooded
  • 47 fish species at risk
  • 30,000 HA of farmland lost
  • 14 million had to be relocated
  • sediment carried by river has fallen by 50%
  • 25 billion to build

Positives

  • create 65 billion in revenue
  • produce 18,000 MW of electricity
  • contol flooding
  • Provide 10% of Chinas electricity sustainably
  • 1 million still not been relocated
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Issues with energy exploitation- Exxon Valdiz oil

1989 Prince william sound Alaska

11 million gallons of oil spilled

less than 15% cleaned up

100 mile squared of oil spilled

250,000 birds dead

1,000 sea otters dead

2 billion clean up

Recreation, fishing and tourist industries were damaged.

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contrasting energy mixes - Mali vs Sweden

Mali

  • 65% of Mali uses firewood- 50 million tonnes of frest per year
  • 21% petroleum
  • 2% coal
  • 12% have access to electricity

Sweden

  • 29% oil
  • 15% Hydro electric
  • 15% nuclear
  • 30% Biomass- Plants ( burned to prdoduce heat, or to create biofuel)
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Sustainable energy exploitation- California

California energy commission incharge of renewable operations

Stopping the construction of 5 powerplants, saving 11 million tones of CO2

Hope to have 30% petrol car market by 2030

14,000 wind turbines account for 2% of energy mix

12% geothermal power plants

19% hydroelectric

1.9 trillion GDP

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Sustainable energy exploitation- Masdar city

50% water consumption reductions

Buildings constucted to maximise shade, 10 degrees cooler than Abu Dhabi

87,000 solar pannels, producing 10 megawatts- concentrated solar power (CSP) uses mirrors to maximise sunlight

80% of water is recylced

Homed to the international renewable energy agency

At least 5 hours of sustainable education anually

5,500 jobs created

Green space

Personal rapid transport system

1.7 billion USD to renewable development all over UAE

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