Russia in the 1850s - Exam Revision

  • Created by: jilly2272
  • Created on: 23-05-17 19:13


  • Topography
    • -60oC in winter, 40oC in summer – varied and extreme climates
    • Artic tundra
    • Mountains
  • Population
    • By 1855, towns and cities with populations of over 100,000 made up only 1.6% of Russia's total population
    • 126 million people by 1897
  • Policies of Nationalities
    • Jews were separated as a "nationality" (as that was how they were viewed at the time), in a settlement in Ukraine
    • Russian was taught all across the regions as it was considered a more pristine language
  • Natural Resources
    • Crops (e.g. grain)
    • Pig-iron
    • Oranges
    • Lemons
    • Vines (to make wine)
  • Communication
    • Reports, which were incredibly ineffective due to how large Russia is and therefore how slowly it takes for messages to be passed on
  • How did Russia's geography make it powerful?
    • Due to the large population, there was lots of human labour/resources which could therefore work and earn money
    • Russia has a variety of resources due to its varying climates (e.g. pig-iron and vines are very difficult yet they were both exported by Russia)

Politics and Religion:

  • Advantages of an Autocracy
    • It was the system of rule across the world, therefore Russia fit in more with the Western powers
    • God had "chosen" the Tsar, therefore he was qualified for the job
  • Disadvantages of an Autocracy
    • Russia was too large - therefore difficult to control without the government's help
    • Tsars could ignore advice given to them (whether or not it would benefit the country)
    • Positions in the government were chosen by the Tsar, meaning that there was little to no opposition as he or she could simply sack them
    • Tax ministers are exempt
  • Regional and Provincial Power Bases
    • Due to the poor communication system in place in Russia at the time, regional and provincial governments could exploit this ineffective system and therefore change and add laws without the Tsar ever knowing
  • Bureaucracy and Administration
    • The Imperial Council Advised the Tsar
    • 13 different departments within the council
    • Legal system was controlled by the Senate
    • The Tsar at the time created the “Personal Chancellery of His Imperial Majesty” which consisted of three departments: personal secretaries, legal experts and secret police controlees
    • Russia was made up of 50 provinces, in which each was divided into about 20 districts. These were controlled by the local assemblies (Mirs)
  • Secret Police
    • The secret police "took care of" people who were against the Tsarist regime or the government as a whole. The opposition did not really exist.
  • Importance of the Church
    • Everyone had a "red corner" in their home in which they would pray
    • The church was the only place in which you could register births, deaths and marriages
    • The Tsar had control of the Church's finances as he or she was a part of the Holy Synod
    • The church taught it's followers to obey them and the government (blind obedience was…


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