German Unification 1815- 1871

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  • German Unification 1815- 1871
    • War and Victory
      • War with Denmark (1 February-30 October 1864) Succession to the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein disputed
        • Make out as liberating German speaking people.
        • Spreads out Austrians resources
      • Austro-Prussian War (15 June-23 August 1866) Schleswig-Holstein issue
        • 7 weeks war, unbelievable achievement. Establishes Prussian dominance permanently.
        • Also creates 'Kleindeutschland' unification without  Austria.
          • Supposed to Grossdeuts unification with Austria
          • 1867 - Prussia and several other north German states unite in the new North German Confederation
      • Franco-Prussian War (19 July 1870-10 May 1871) Ems dispatch.
        • War against a common enemy to unite states, especially those who'd fought with Prussia.
          • Also  Generates feelings of nationalistic pride.
        • Also defeats potential ally of Austria's in Europe.
        • Wilhelm of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor on 18 January 1871.Germany was now a nation
    • Liberalism
      • Growing Ideology in Europe spread to Germany, wanted political equality.
        • Created Frankfurt parliament (1848) to replace Bund, to satisfy protests of peasants and workers. But not strong enough to unite Germany. No support from Monarchy, refused crown. Essentially filling vacuum.
    • Nationalism
      • Rising feeling in Europe and now among common people wanted strong united Germany
        • Also caused rise in popularity for imperialism, as united Germany began to extend influence become a world power.
          • Both of these Prussia could appeal to when getting popular support for uniting Germany
          • Militarism, strong defense and ability to conquer.
      • Loose, pre-Napoleonic ideas about German identity developed into intense national pride in the unity of a greater Germany
    • German confederation (Bund)
      • Created 39 states but with collective strength
      • First step to unity improved communicatio between states
        • But still independent, and pressure between Prussia and Austria as biggest states, no answer to question of who will dominate.
    • Bismark
      • Policies of 'Realpolitik' and 'Blood and iron'
        • Realpolitik meant was pragmatic, took advantage of any  opportunity to win diplomatic support
          • Support from Italy in war against Prussia promising Venetia.
          • Kulturkampf, stifle's catholic political power to appeal to Liberals, prefer secular state.
            • Also, Advocates industrialisati
          • Got support from Russia supporting military suppression of Poles. (Alvensleben Convention 1863) Russia would remain neutral in all Germany's futre wars.
        • Believed Germany could only be united through war.
          • Engineered/ encouraged war with Austria to assert Prussian dominance and war with France for unification through patriotic support
    • Prussia
      • Economic dominance
        • Creation of Zollverein in 1818, Prussia's own Custom's Union. Large, local free trade area. By 1836 25 states had joined. (But not Austria).
          • Economic union helped pave way for political union through annual assembly.
          • Enhanced Prussia’s influence over the central Germanic states
        • Increased external trade in primary resources. Rich coal and iron resources Strong education system Investment in and expansion of railways. Strong communicatio links.
          • Berlin-Potsdam Railway constructed fully by 1838.
        • Massive industrialisati with government support for businesses.
          • British-backed financial growth, 419,000 workers in Berlin's industry by 1850. 5.6mil tons of coal produced in 1845 in Prussia.  Output of coal increase 10x in Silesia 1815-50.
      • Political dominance
        • Prussia's economic leadership in Bund led to sympathy for it's political aims. Had economic muscle to support large army and efficient government.
        • In 1858 create ministry with both conservatives and liberals
          • 1859 created Nationalvereinplatform for liberal discussions.




Apologies for some of the grammar some of the longer words seem to have had the ends cut off, e.g. communication. But should still be readable.

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