German Unification 1815- 1871

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  • German Unification 1815- 1871
    • War and Victory
      • War with Denmark (1 February-30 October 1864) Succession to the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein disputed
        • Make out as liberating German speaking people.
        • Spreads out Austrians resources
      • Austro-Prussian War (15 June-23 August 1866) Schleswig-Holstein issue
        • 7 weeks war, unbelievable achievement. Establishes Prussian dominance permanently.
        • Also creates 'Kleindeutschland' unification without  Austria.
          • Supposed to Grossdeuts unification with Austria
          • 1867 - Prussia and several other north German states unite in the new North German Confederation
      • Franco-Prussian War (19 July 1870-10 May 1871) Ems dispatch.
        • War against a common enemy to unite states, especially those who'd fought with Prussia.
          • Also  Generates feelings of nationalistic pride.
        • Also defeats potential ally of Austria's in Europe.
        • Wilhelm of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor on 18 January 1871.Germany was now a nation
    • Liberalism
      • Growing Ideology in Europe spread to Germany, wanted political equality.
        • Created Frankfurt parliament (1848) to replace Bund, to satisfy protests of peasants and workers. But not strong enough to unite Germany. No support from Monarchy, refused crown. Essentially filling vacuum.
    • Nationalism
      • Rising feeling in Europe and now among common people wanted strong united Germany
        • Also caused rise in popularity for imperialism, as united Germany began to extend influence become a world power.
          • Both of these Prussia could appeal to when getting popular support for uniting Germany
          • Militarism, strong defense and ability to conquer.
      • Loose, pre-Napoleonic ideas about German identity developed into intense national pride in the unity of a greater Germany
    • German confederation (Bund)
      • Created 39 states but with collective strength
      • First step to unity improved communicatio between states
        • But still independent, and pressure between Prussia and Austria as biggest states, no answer to question of who will dominate.
    • Bismark
      • Policies of 'Realpolitik' and 'Blood and iron'
        • Realpolitik meant was pragmatic, took advantage of any  opportunity to win diplomatic support
          • Support from Italy in war against Prussia promising Venetia.
          • Kulturkampf, stifle's catholic political power to appeal to Liberals, prefer secular state.
            • Also, Advocates industrialisati
          • Got support from Russia supporting military suppression of Poles. (Alvensleben Convention 1863) Russia would remain neutral in all Germany's futre wars.
        • Believed Germany could only be united through war.
          • Engineered/ encouraged war with Austria to assert Prussian dominance and war with France for unification through patriotic support
    • Prussia
      • Economic dominance
        • Creation of Zollverein in 1818, Prussia's own Custom's Union. Large, local free trade area. By 1836 25 states had joined. (But not Austria).
          • Economic union helped pave way for political union through annual assembly.
          • Enhanced Prussia’s influence over the central Germanic states
        • Increased external trade in primary resources. Rich coal and iron resources Strong education system Investment in and expansion of railways. Strong communicatio links.
          • Berlin-Potsdam Railway constructed fully by 1838.
        • Massive industrialisati with government support for businesses.
          • British-backed financial growth, 419,000 workers in Berlin's industry by 1850. 5.6mil tons of coal produced in 1845 in Prussia.  Output of coal increase 10x in Silesia 1815-50.
      • Political dominance
        • Prussia's economic leadership in Bund led to sympathy for it's political aims. Had economic muscle to support large army and efficient government.
        • In 1858 create ministry with both conservatives and liberals
          • 1859 created Nationalvereinplatform for liberal discussions.

Comments

GalleyGirl

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Apologies for some of the grammar some of the longer words seem to have had the ends cut off, e.g. communication. But should still be readable.

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