RESEARCH METHODS (Part1/5) (Major features of science, Scientific processes, peer review)

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MAJOR FEATURES OF SCIENCE (C.O.T.E.R.R)

Control: When establishing casual links scientists need to control conditions.

Objectivity: Scientists expectations should not affect what they record.

Theory constructions: collecting facts to construct theories, general principles to explain the facts.

Empiricism: Information is gained through direct observations or experiments.

Rationality: Explanations need to be consistent with known facts and follow logic.

Replicablility: Essential for methods to be recorded carefully so that the same procedure can be followed again.

SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES

Induction model: Making discoveries about the world through accurate observations and formulatuon theories based on them

Observations > develop hypothesis > studies to test > conclusions > construct the theory.

Deductive model (Hypothetico-deductive model): Theories should come first and should be used to generate hypothesis which

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