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Section C: This section is worth 35 marks. You are expected to spend 50 minutes on
this section. You must answer all the questions.
1

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PSYA4 section C: Psychological Research and Scientific Method
Candidates will be expected to:
· extend their knowledge, understanding and skills of research design, data analysis, and data
interpretation and reporting gained at AS
· develop an understanding of the nature of science and scientific method. This section builds on the…

Page 3

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WHAT IS MEANT BY THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN PSYCHOLOGY?
·

The most fundamental characteristic of science is its reliance on empirical methods of
observation and investigation i.e. observation through sensory experience rather than a reliance
on thoughts and ideas. This is the scientific method.
·

Science involves constructing theories, which…

Page 4

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false the greater confidence we have in the theory.
3

Page 5

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VALIDATING NEW KNOWLEDGE
Psychology, in common with all scientific subjects, develops its knowledge base through
conducting research and sharing the findings of such research with other scientists. Peer review
is an essential part of this process and scientific quality is judged by it. It is in the interest of all…

Page 6

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mere opinion and speculation, and what is real fact. We need to have a means of establishing
the validity of scientific research. While the purpose of peer review is beyond question, certain
features of the process can be criticised. For example Richard Smith, previous editor of the
British Medical Journal…

Page 7

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expensive, profligate of academic time, highly subjective, prone to bias, easily abused, poor at
detecting gross defects and almost useless at detecting fraud' (Smith, 1999). Criticisms include:
· Unachievable ideal ­ It isn't always possible to find an appropriate expert to review a research proposal
or report. This means that…

Page 8

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Planning a Psychological Study
Often part of the RM question will involve a longer answer where you have to design a study
around information given to you in the question. This can be worth a lot of marks. You must
adjust your detail to the number of marks. Here are…

Page 9

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will be disclosed to participants
Think about issues like inter-observer reliability. How will you ensure it is high? Using a
checklist/ videoing behaviour etc and training observers
Correlation
Remember no IV/DV but two co-variables - again need to be operationalised
Remember correlational hypotheses are looking for a relationship not a…

Page 10

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Questionnaires
What questions will you ask? Open/ closed
How will you reduce social desirability bias?
Filler questions/ lie detection questions
Will you use scales e.g. 1-10 will they be odd so people can go for the middle or even
Pilot studies to check questions easily understood etc
Also could check…

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Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Section C: This section is worth 35 marks. You are expected to spend 50 minutes on
this section. You must answer all the questions.
1

Page 2

Preview of page 2
PSYA4 section C: Psychological Research and Scientific Method
Candidates will be expected to:
· extend their knowledge, understanding and skills of research design, data analysis, and data
interpretation and reporting gained at AS
· develop an understanding of the nature of science and scientific method. This section builds on the…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
WHAT IS MEANT BY THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN PSYCHOLOGY?
·

The most fundamental characteristic of science is its reliance on empirical methods of
observation and investigation i.e. observation through sensory experience rather than a reliance
on thoughts and ideas. This is the scientific method.
·

Science involves constructing theories, which…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
false the greater confidence we have in the theory.
3

Page 5

Preview of page 5
VALIDATING NEW KNOWLEDGE
Psychology, in common with all scientific subjects, develops its knowledge base through
conducting research and sharing the findings of such research with other scientists. Peer review
is an essential part of this process and scientific quality is judged by it. It is in the interest of all…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
mere opinion and speculation, and what is real fact. We need to have a means of establishing
the validity of scientific research. While the purpose of peer review is beyond question, certain
features of the process can be criticised. For example Richard Smith, previous editor of the
British Medical Journal…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
expensive, profligate of academic time, highly subjective, prone to bias, easily abused, poor at
detecting gross defects and almost useless at detecting fraud' (Smith, 1999). Criticisms include:
· Unachievable ideal ­ It isn't always possible to find an appropriate expert to review a research proposal
or report. This means that…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Planning a Psychological Study
Often part of the RM question will involve a longer answer where you have to design a study
around information given to you in the question. This can be worth a lot of marks. You must
adjust your detail to the number of marks. Here are…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
will be disclosed to participants
Think about issues like inter-observer reliability. How will you ensure it is high? Using a
checklist/ videoing behaviour etc and training observers
Correlation
Remember no IV/DV but two co-variables - again need to be operationalised
Remember correlational hypotheses are looking for a relationship not a…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Questionnaires
What questions will you ask? Open/ closed
How will you reduce social desirability bias?
Filler questions/ lie detection questions
Will you use scales e.g. 1-10 will they be odd so people can go for the middle or even
Pilot studies to check questions easily understood etc
Also could check…

Comments

No comments have yet been made