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Section C:
This section is worth 35
marks. You are expected to
spend 50 minutes on this
section. You must answer
all the questions.


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PSYA4 section C: Psychological Research and Scientific Method
Candidates will be expected to:
extend their knowledge, understanding and skills of research design,
data analysis, and data interpretation and reporting gained at AS
develop an understanding of the nature of science and scientific
method.
This section builds on the knowledge and…

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WHAT IS MEANT BY THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN PSYCHOLOGY?
The most fundamental characteristic of science is its reliance on empirical methods of observation and
investigation i.e. observation through sensory experience rather than a reliance on thoughts and ideas.
This is the scientific method.
Science involves constructing theories, which can in…

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VALIDATING NEW KNOWLEDGE

Psychology, in common with all scientific subjects, develops its knowledge base through
conducting research and sharing the findings of such research with other scientists. Peer
review is an essential part of this process and scientific quality is judged by it. It is in the
interest of all…

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expensive, profligate of academic time, highly subjective, prone to bias, easily abused, poor at detecting gross
defects and almost useless at detecting fraud' (Smith, 1999). Criticisms include:
Unachievable ideal ­ It isn't always possible to find an appropriate expert to review a research proposal
or report. This means that poor…

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Planning a Psychological Study
Often part of the RM question will involve a longer answer where you have to design a study
around information given to you in the question. This can be worth a lot of marks. You must
adjust your detail to the number of marks. Here are…

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Questionnaires
What questions will you ask? Open/ closed
How will you reduce social desirability bias?
Filler questions/ lie detection questions
Will you use scales e.g. 1-10 will they be odd so people can go for the middle or even
Pilot studies to check questions easily understood etc
Also could check…

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Experiment planning sheet
Aim



IV (need 2 conditions)

DV

Experimental design

Controls



Null hypothesis


Alternative hypothesis



Participants- How many? Who? Sampling method? How allocated to conditions?




Ethical issues




Procedure




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Correlation planning sheet
Aim



Co-variable 1

Co-variable 2

Controls




Null hypothesis


Alternative hypothesis



Participants- How many? Who? Sampling method?




Ethical issues




Procedure




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Observation planning sheet
Aim



Details of behaviour checklist


Training of observers


Details of time or event sampling

where will observers be positioned? Will participants be aware observed?



Null hypothesis


Alternative hypothesis



Participants- How many? Who? Sampling method?




Ethical issues




Procedure




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