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Approaches
Biological
Behaviourist
Social Learning Theory
Cognitive
Psychodynamic
Humanistic
Eclectic…read more

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Biological - Assumptions
All behaviour has a biological basis.
The causal level of analysis focuses on
physiological explanations.
The functional level of analysis focuses on
evolutionary and genetic explanations.
Genes can explain inherited
characteristics, such as aggression.…read more

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Biological ­ Causal level of analysis
The human body consists of millions of
cells that communicate via electrical and
chemical signals.
Behaviour is controlled by the nervous
system.…read more

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Biological ­ Causal level of analysis
Nervous system
Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System
Brain Spinal cord Autonomic NS Somatic NS
The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that radiate from the central
nervous system.
Furthermore, the PNS consists of the autonomic nervous system and the
somatic nervous system. The former controls automatic body processes such
as blood pressure and heart rate, whereas the latter controls muscles related to
movement.…read more

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Biological ­ Causal level of analysis
The central nervous system consists of
cells called neurons, which communicate
with each other via neurotransmitters which
pass between synapses.
Hormones and other similar chemicals act
throughout the bloodstream.…read more

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Biological ­ Functional level
Natural selection.
This is the idea that those animals within a
species that will survive have particular
traits that give them an advantage
compared with the others.
These behaviours are adapted and is
suited to the environment. These animals
will be the ones that survive and have more
offspring.…read more

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Biological ­ Functional level
Dowling (1994) ­ natural selection
depends on three key principles:
Principle of diversity
Principle of interaction
Principle of differential amplification…read more

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Biological ­ Functional level
Sexual selection.
Males can have as many offspring as
possible.
Females are restricted, and so are choosy
when it comes to picking a male mate.
Dawkins (1997) ­ suggested it is the
survival of the genes that matter, rather
than the survival of the individual.…read more

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Biological - Genes
Small mutations in DNA can lead to
changes in the next generation.
DNA is made by combinations of the
bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and
thymine.
Chromosomes decide one's biological sex
­ XX or XY (XXY or XO lead to differing
characteristics).
Chromosomes are made through the
processes of mitosis and meiosis.…read more

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