Protein Activation and Gene Mutation.

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Protein activation is controlled by molecules such as hormones and sugars.

They work by binding to cell membranes and triggering production of cyclic AMP.

cAMP activates proteins by altering their 3D structure, so changing the active site.

For example,

Protein Kinase A, inactive when cAMP isn't bound.

cAMP binds and causes a change in enzymes 3D structure. It releases its active subunits and becomes active.

Mutations.

Types of mutation.

Substitution. one base is swapped for another.

Deletion. One base is removed.

Insertion. One base is added.

Duplication. one…

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