Principle of chemistry section A

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States of Matter 1.1 understand the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in each of the three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas

the spacing between the particles of solids is extermely small. They are close and touching one another. solids have regular and repeating patterns and vibrate in their fixed posions but do no move apart. They have strong forces of  atraction between the particles which is stonger then liquids and gases 

the spacing between the particles of liquids is close and touching one another.The arrangement of liquid particles is irregular. Liquids move and slid past each other , the forces of attraction between them is not as stonge as these of solids. 

there is large space between the partricles of gases as they are far apart their arrangment is irregular. Gases move freely and constanly colide with one anothr the forces of attraction between the particles of gas is non existent 

States of Matter 1.2 & 1.3 understand how the interconversions of solids, liquids and gases are achieved and recall the names used for these interconversions

solids to liquid (melting) 

how to bring about the change 

heat the solid until it melts 

why the change accurs 

the particles gain kentic energy this makes them vibrate faster and fastern. until they over come the forces of attractiobn that holids them in pace in the state of solid. the regular pattern is broken down and  now thew particles can slid past  one another.

liquid to solid (freezing)

how to bring about the change

  cool the liquid until it freezes 

why it the change occurs 

the particles lose kinetic energy and this allows the forces of attraction between the particles to hold them togthere. the particles arrange themselves togthere. the particles arrange themselves into a regular pattern and are no longer able to slid past one another.

liquid to gas (boling)

how to bring about the change 

heat the liquid until it boils 

why the change occurs 

the particles gain kinetic energy and move further apart. Eventually the forces of attraction  ttraction between the particles are completely broken and they are able to escape from liquid 

gas

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