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Chemistry Higher Tier
Understand the term mole as the Avogadro number of particles (atoms,
molecules, formulae, ions or electrons) in a substance

A mole is Avogadro's number simply because if you have 1 mole of an element its weight in
grams will be its atomic mass.



Understand the term molar…

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Describe an ionic crystal as a giant three-dimensional lattice structure held
together by the attraction between oppositely charged ions

An ionic crystal is a lattice of electrons in the shape of a cube, the ions are alternate positive
and negative and their opposing charges hold the structure together



Draw a…

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Explain how the uses of diamond and graphite depend on their structures, limited
to graphite as a lubricant and diamond in cutting.

In Graphite the atoms from layers, these layers can slide over each other, this makes it very
slippery and so can be used as a lubricant.
Diamond is…

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Calculate the amounts of the products of the electrolysis of molten salts and
aqueous solutions.

One faraday is 96500 coulombs. It is also one mole of electrons.

If current of 0.2 Amps is passed through copper (ll) sulphate for two hours, how much
copper do you get?


Write out the…

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force holding it in will be very strong, if it is further away it will be weaker.

So bigger atoms (towards the bottom of the group) with the outer orbital far from the
nucleus will lose their electron more easily: this means they react more
easily/quickly/more/vigorously.

Smaller atoms with the…

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Conditions: sugar in water, yeast and a temperature of 30 C to 40 C.
As yeast is a living organism the optimum temperature for fermentation is 35 C. At higher
temperatures the reaction nearly stops as the enzyme is broken down or denatured.


Evaluate the factors relevant to the choice…

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Calculate molar enthalpy change from heat energy change


H =


Use average bond energies to calculate the enthalpy change during a simple
chemical reaction.

If we know how much energy is needed to break bonds and how much energy is released when new
bonds are made we can calculate the…

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Understand that some polymers, such as nylon, form by a
different process called condensation polymerisation

Two monomers join together when they lose a small molecule
made up of atoms from both monomers.




Understand that condensation polymerisation produces a small molecule, such as water,
as well as the polymer.

Commonly, an…

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- Vanadium (V) Oxide Catalyst

There is a 99.5% yield in this reaction

Step 3: Making the Sulphuric Acid

In principle, you can react sulphur trioxide with water to make sulphuric acid.
SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq)

In practice, this produces an uncontrollable fog of concentrated sulphuric acid. Instead, the
sulphur…

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At the cathode

Both hydrogen and sodium ions are attracted to the cathode. However, it is much easier to
liberate the hydrogen ions.

2H+ + 2e- H2

In the solution

In the solution negatively charged hydroxide ions and positively charged sodium ions are
left. These form sodium hydroxide.

Na+ +…

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