Politics Papers 1 / 2 Notes

  • Created by: S_webb
  • Created on: 06-01-19 22:29

Democracy and Participation:

  • Direct democracy -- origins in ancient Greece. The Ecclesia (Assembly) -- 40 times a year, male citizens of about 20 years of age. All major issues debated at these meetings. 6,000 quorum. 500-man Council, 50-strogn Commitee, positions decicded by rota. President of the COmmitee only in office for one day, no man could hold more than once in his life. 
  • Modern states function on represnetative demcoracy -- we choose representatives to make decisions for us. But this raises the question of what effective representation even is. Burkean view, "not just his industyr but his judgement", delegate view, mandate view or descriptive representation.
  • 1872 the secret ballot, 1948 one man one vote, 1997 proportional representation (but not at Westminster),2000 Elecotral Commission, 2011 fixed-term parliaments. Non-elected bodies, FPTP and malpracticeh ave been criticised by some, however (although the first two do haveb enefits as well). Universial suffrage (but universlap articipation far from ahieved), electoral choice (but two-partyp olitics and ideological overlap can leave little real choice for individuals), Parliament with a dominant elected chamber, individual rights.
  • 1819 Peterloo, 1832 Great Reform (Second  (all settled tenant in boroughs) and Third  (rural / mining areas, practically all male householders / tenants) 1867 and 1884), 1838-49 Chartism, 1918 Rep. of People, 1928 Equal Franchise Act, 1969 18 to vote, 2016 and 2017 16 in Scotland. 
  • Evolution of citizens' rights: 1215 AMgna Carta, 1689 Bull of Rights, 151 ECHR, 1975 Sex Discrimination, 1976 Race Relations, 1998 HRA, 2010 Rquality Act (nine pieces of legislation merged).  Race Relations Amendment 2000, now a positive duty of public organsiations. 
  • 1945-1992 an average turnout above 75%, 1950 84% record. 2001 59% lowest since 191. 2017 69.6%. Laobur Party -- 1950s 1 million members, 190,000 early 2015, but 528,150 March 2017. "Second-order election" turnouts even worse -- Polcie and Crime Commissioner elections 16% 2012, 25% 2016.2016 39,000 UKIP, 120,000 SNP and 55,500 Green Party members. 1950s 7% members of a party vs 1.6% 2016. 2.8m Conservative members 1950s to 130,000 2016. But evidence that on issue-focused referendums turnout is far higher (84.6% Scottish referendum, 72.21% EU referendum. Other means of pariticpation such as e-demcoraxy? (1.6 million signatures for one petition on road charges). Exist, but questionable how meaningful this "participation" is.

Elections and referenda:

  • Results suggest some imporvements outside Westminster in terms of proportionality: SDP 46.5% of constituency, 41.7% list vots for 48.8% seats, Conservativs 22% and 22.9% for 24%, Labour 22.6% and 19.1% for 18.6^, LD 7.8% and 5.2% for 3.9%. Welsh 2016 L 32.7% 34.7% 48.3%, C 21.1% 21.1% 18.3%, PD 20.5% 20.5% 20% UKIP 12.5% 12.5% 11.7% (notably all list seats). NI 2017 DUP 28.1% firstp reference for 31.1%, SF 27.9% 30%, SDLP 11.9% 13.3%, UUP 12.9% 11.1%, Alliance 9.1% 8.9%. 

Political parties:

  • June 2017 C manifesto: net miration under 100,000, increased levy for foreign workes, £100,000 before having to pay for care, £72,000 lifetime care costs cap scrapped pproperty in future included in means test for care at home (but this was scrapped just…

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