- Created by: ElizabethVMStow
- Created on: 13-06-17 11:44
TOPIC 7 - PARLIAMENT
ELIZABETH VM STOW, CORRECT AND UPDATED AS OF APRIL 2017
A BRIEF HISTORY OF PARLIAMENT:
· Charles I was executed in 1649 by Parliament for trying to govern on his own rather than with the help of Parliament. At this time whilst Parliament insisted on being consulted, the role of it was subordinate to the monarch and continued to be so for many years.
· After the Glorious Revolution in 1688 the main source of power was changed from the monarchy to Parliament and it’s role has since then slowly evolved to what it is today.
· In 1720 the cabinets most senior figure became known as the Prime Minister and began to take on more power.
KEY FEATURES OF A PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT:
· THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES ARE FUSED: There is overlap between membership of the executive and legislature, with the government consisting of members of the legislature.
· THE LEGISLATURE CAN DISMISS THE EXECUTIVE: Government is accountable to parliament, which can remove government through a vote of no confidence. Government can dissolve parliament by calling a GE.
· PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS DECIDE THE GOVERNMENT: Governments formed according to their strength in parliament. Leader of largest party becomes PM.
· COLLECTIVE GOVERNMENT: Executive branch is led by PM whom, in theory, is “first among equals” in a cabinet of senior ministers.
· SEPARATE HEAD OF STATE: The head of the executive (PM) is not the Head of State (Monarch.)
PARLIAMENTARY VS PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT:
· Parliament is the main (in the UK only) source of political authority. Political power may only be exercised if it has been authorised by Parliament.
· The government must be drawn from Parliament (either Commons or Lords)
· Parliament can dismiss the government through a vote of confidence; the government can dissolve parliament by calling an election.
· There is no strict separation of powers, the powers of the legislative and executive are fused - government ministers are members of the legislature and are responsible to it.
· Power is exercised collectively within the executive branch – the PM is the head of a cabinet.
· The government is accountable to Parliament.
· The head of the executive (PM) is not the head of state (Monarch).
· Clear separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches – members of the executive cannot be members of the legislature. Outlined in an codified constitutional agreement.
· The President is not part of the legislature, and the legislature cannot dismiss the president, except in special circumstances, and the executive cannot dismiss the legislature.
· Power in the executive is concentrated in the office of the president.
· The President is directly accountable to the people, not to the legislature.
· The President is also head of state.
THE WESTMINSTER MODEL:
· Traditional way…