Government and Politics - Unit 2 revision pack with examples [Incomplete]

This is all I've managed to get done so far. I'll work on it lots more after the Unit 1 exam on Wednesday.

Contains most of the 'Constitution' topic at the moment.

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  • Created by: JPerren
  • Created on: 14-05-12 12:36
Preview of Government and Politics - Unit 2 revision pack with examples [Incomplete]

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Politics Unit 2
Unit 2.1
What is a Constitution?
A Constitution is "a set of principles which may be written or unwritten, that establishes
the distribution of power within a political system, the relationships between political
institutions and places limits on the governments jurisdiction, the rights of citizens and the
methods of amending the constitution itself."
Virtually every country in the world has a constitution. In most cases, this constitution is a
written document which has been agreed upon at a certain occasion, known as a `codified
constitution' e.g. the United States of America. However, some countries, such as the UK,
operate under a constitution which has never been written down formally and instead is
drawn from a variety of different sources. This is known as an `uncodified constitution'.
What are the functions of a Constitution?
Every Constitution, whether codified or not, all perform the same set of functions:
It determines how political power should be distributed within the state. Whether
that state is a federal state, (where power is divided between the central
government and regional institutions or states) such as the USA, or a unitary state
(where all the power lies in once place).
It determines the balance of power between the Government, the Parliament, the
President or PM and between the two chambers in bicameral systems, (the Lords
and Parliament in the UK, for example).
It establishes the political process by which the system works. This includes the
relationships between institutions and the rules which govern how they operate.
It states where the limits on Governmental power should be drawn.
It assigns the rights of citizens against the state, for example the Bill of Rights in the
It establishes the rules by which nationality is assigned. In other words, who is
entitled to citizenship and how do outsiders become a citizen.
It determines the rules by which the Constitution may be amended.

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The term Codification is simply the process of setting out a constitution in an organized
way and a single document. All Codified Constitutions have, at some point, gone through
the process of Codification. Typically this occurs at the critical moment in the country's
history such as after a revolution or civil war.
One side effect of having a Codified Constitution is the creation of a Duel Tier Legal System.…read more

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Judicial Review
Judicial Review is a "process undertaken by senior courts where judges are required to
interpret, reinterpret or clarify constitutional rates". This occurs when an issue is brought
up and its relation to the constitution is unclear. The aim of the review is to decide whether
the issue is acting within or out of the constraints of the constitution.
e.g. Roe v Wade 1973 ­ Feminist groups challenged anti-abortion laws on the grounds
that it was violating the basic constitutional rights of women.…read more

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The characteristics of the British constitution
It is Uncodified ­ The British Constitution is not contained in one single document
but instead composed of various different sources as we saw above. It is worth noting
however, that it does contain written statues, books of authorities and EU treaties but the
majority of its content is unwritten.
Not Entrenched ­ The British Constitution is not entrenched and can be changed
very quickly and easily by Parliament with now laws restricting this.…read more

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The Strengths and Weaknesses of the British Constitution
Strengths Weaknesses
As the Constitution is neither codified The lack to restraints on the power of
nor entrenched it is flexible and easily Parliament and government mean that
changed. This allows it to be quickly individual and minority rights may be in
changed to react to circumstance. An danger.…read more



Could you finish it by 21-22nd? We would be grateful =)


have you finished these by any chance? exams in 2 days, doing some revision

Zmuncila Carolina

when is it going to be finished?Exam is tomorrow!


This is brilliant PLEASE FINISH

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