Observe behaviour in real-life or laboratory settings without manipulating an independent variable. This can be useful when the independent variable is unethical to manipulate or to create a starting point for research
· Naturalistic observations observe naturally occurring behaviour in a natural setting
· Controlled observations are conducted in a laboratory which gives the researcher more control over the environment which reduces the naturalness of behaviour.
THE ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER
· In a participant observation the observer becomes part of the group/situation being studied, they usually produce qualitative data so the data will have less of a focus.
· A non-participant observation is where the observer remains external (watches participants from a distance).
· An overt observation (disclosed) means that the participants are aware of being observed
· A covert observation (undisclosed) means the participants do not know they are being observed.
THE STRUCTURE OF AN OBSERVATION
· Unstructured observations are conducted with the researcher writing down everything they observe and analysing it later by looking for patterns of behaviour. This is useful for a pilot study, and mainly produces qualitative data. One problem with unstructured observations is that the behaviour recorded will be the most eye-catching to the observer but these may not be the most…