Pathogens are bacteria or viruses that cause the production of diseases.
Antigens are molecules that are identified as 'foreign' found on the surface of a cell.
The immune system carries out a immune response in where the pathogens are destroyed.
There are two types of reponses by the immune system which are:
- Non-specific response- where the invading pathogens are destroyed
- Specific response- where directed at specific pathogens
Non Specific response
There are a number of barriers that prevent the entry of pathogens such as:
- Physical barriers (e.g skin, and reflexes such as sneezing)
- Chemical barriers (e.g lysozymes within eyes, stomach acid)
Skin: When the skin is damaged, pathogens may be able to enter the body at the damaged area, to prevent this, blood clots at this area, forming a scab, to prevent any (more) pathogens getting in.
Respiratory System: Pathogens are sometimes breathed in from the air around us. When this happens, the pathogens are caught in the mucus secreted from the goblet cells on the epithelium of our lungs. This mucus is then beated and wafted up out from the lungs by tiny little…