Immunology

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 24-03-14 21:24
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  • Immunology
    • Phagocytosis
      • Phagocyte recognises antigens on pathogen as foreign
        • Pathogen is engulfed by phagocyte
          • Enters cytoplasm of phagocyte in a vesicle
            • Lysosome fuses with vesicle releasing digestive enzymes
              • Enzyme breaks down pathogen
                • Waste materials ejected
    • Specific immunity
      • A specific response to a specific antigen on the surface of a cell or pathogen that has been recognised as non self
      • Antigen
        • A molecule that stimulates an immune response resulting in the production of specific antibodies
      • Antibodies
        • Protein/ glycoprotein made in response to foreign antigen
          • Produced by B cells
          • Has binding sites which bind specifically to antigen
    • T- cells (cellular response)
      • Phagocyte engulfs pathogen, breaks it down, and presents the antigens on the surface of its membrane
        • T cell binds to the antigen presented and it is activated
          • Killer T cell
            • Locate and destroy body cells that are infected by pathogen that caused the immune response
          • Helper T cell
            • Releases chemicals that attract phagocytes and b cells to area of infection
            • Activate B cells
      • Primary response
        • B- cells (Humoral response)
          • T cell with complementary receptor binds to presented antigen and activates b cell
            • B cell clones
              • Plasma cells
                • Produces specific antibodies
              • Memory cells
                • Remain in body to respond to pathogen quicker should there be future re infection
    • B- cells (Humoral response)
      • T cell with complementary receptor binds to presented antigen and activates b cell
        • B cell clones
          • Plasma cells
            • Produces specific antibodies
          • Memory cells
            • Remain in body to respond to pathogen quicker should there be future re infection
    • Secondary respone
      • Memory cells encounter antigen and rapidly activate and divide
        • Clone into plasma cells and more memory cells via mitosis
          • Antibodies produced without time consuming primary response
            • More antibodies more quickly
    • Immunity and vaccinations
      • Passive
        • Antibodies received elsewhere
      • Active
        • Memory cells produced after primary immune response
      • Vaccine
        • Dead, attenuated or weakend pathogen
          • Initiates an immune response producing memory cells
            • upon re infection a secondary response occurs
              • pathogen eliminated before it can cause disease
        • Do not work with antigenic variability
          • Changing of antigens
      • Herd immunity
        • Enough individuals in population are vaccinated there is little chance of disease spreading
          • Even non vaccinated individuals are protected
    • Monoclonal antibodies
      • Mouse injected with a pathogen/cell that will stimulate production of immune cells/antibodies

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