Name of Linguist, Year, What They Discovered
Danish- described female lang as using unfinished sentences
Women seek overt prestige while men seek covert prestige. Men use more non-standard pronunciation.
Speech of women directly reflects male dominance and female oppression
Argued that women used tentative expressions (eg. Tag q’s) due to their social position- described male lang as stronger and more prestigious
Zimmerman and West, 1975
Taped conversations between students and discovered 96% of interruptions were by men- no difference in single sex conversations. Longer pauses in mixed sex conversations. Formed concept of ‘doing gender’
Looked at sexist language use- father’s/husband’s surnames
Men use more non-standard forms. When women started getting employed they picked up more non-standard speech.
Looked at the differences in cultures and language which led to difference theory
Argued that men control meaning so women are expressing themselves through man made language
O’Barr and Atkins, 1980
Said that features of uncertain speech were more dependent on power than gender in court- using Lakoff’s ‘female’ features- renamed it powerless language.
Men talk more than women, 62% of topics introduced by women, women backchannel more and ask 3x more qs
Similar to Coates-…