John Locke

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  • Prior to Government, Locke imagines a state of nature
  • Thus everyone is free and equal
  • Everyone is bound by law of nature - Self-preservation and preserving others livevs if it does not conflict with your own


  • Freedom is not just power
  • Don't have liberty to destroy himself or any other creature


  • Not based on our vulnerability or capability to attack
  • 'Should also be equal amongst one another without subordination or subjection'.

Theological Foundations

  • Like Hobbes, appeals to natural reason
  • Adam received earth on behalf of humanity
  • God created all people as naturally free and independant
  • In a state of nature all are free

Natural Law

  • No one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions
  • Ought he as much as he can to preserve the rest of mankind
  • Law of Nature 1) Obliges everyone. 2) Declares all to be equal and free 3) Forbidden from harming each other 4) Required to preserve ourselves and others.
  • We do all this because we are the workmanship of God

Theoretical Affinity with Individualist Anarchism

  • Radical extension of classical liberalism
  • State of Nature is full of inconveniences however: Lacks a judge to settle disputes and lacks a mean of enforcing law of nature
  • Solution would be to leave the state of nature and enter a civil society but one of…


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