Ideological Conflict - Attitudes towards the West
- Aprtil 1956, Soviet 20th Party Congress. Khrushchev denounces Stalin and his dictatorship in that it used persecution and purges to consolidate a personal rule.
- Shocks Chinese Communists. Danger of drifting into revisionism. Indeed, the speech was part of a wider Soviet policy, 'peaceful co-existnece.' A passive acceptence of a bipolar system which sought better relationships with the West, and thus, capitalism. in contrast, Mao advocates a policy of permament revolution.
- 1957, Conference of Communist Parties. Criticise notion of 'detente.' Deng, China is 'real leader of internation revolutionary Communism.' * Soviets pass motion saying that the USSR is the 'first and mightiest' socialist state.
- Even nuclear - EG. Taiwan Crisis 1958-59. Mao prepared for Nuclear Conflict with the Americans, 'if the worse comes to the worse and half of mankind died, the other half would remain, while imperialism would be razed to the ground and the world would become socialist.' Immanuel Hsu, 'Mao considered Khrushchev a coward over handing of Cuban Missile Crisis.' K sees it as reckless, irresponsible, especially while Soviets were attempting to form better relations with the US.
- Weak Soviet attempt in Algerian War of Decolonialisation (1954-62) - colluding with American imperialists.
- Similarly, ruthless supression of Prague Spring (1968) was met by degradation of Soviet system.
- with our combined strength we will go for the enemy and smash him.'
- 1961, Class struggle is over - Mao, permanent revolution: revolutions which regarded themselves as complete or were confined to indivudual countries would cease to be revoltions, subsequently lapsing into reaction. 1949: 'now we must start a technological revolution so that we may overtake Britain in 15 or more years.'
- Brezhnev, 1964, Doctrine - idea that Communists must accept Soviet way?
Ideological Conflict - different ways of implementing Communism
Indeed, a Western observer, perhaps not fully aware of complex factions of Communism, feared the ermergence of a monolithic Communist Bloc. HOWEVER
- Great Leap Forward, 1958. Rejects Soviet model of economic development.
- Soviets rely on expertise and the working class. Mao had strong emphasis on the role of the peasants (enthusiasm.)
- Great Leap Forward represented Mao's willingness to take different path from Soviets.
- USSR reaction 'faulty in design, erroneous in pratice' - 30m die.
- Soviet press revel in failure. Cancel 257 joint technical projects and remove 1390 experts in July 1960.
- CULTURAL revoltuion May 1966 - heart of authentic Chinese culture; reignite class struggle.
- Eliminate creeping return of the bourgeoise. (US and USSR global cities, China and the third world global countryside.) Liu Shoqui 'Chinese K'
- Goes to see opera, refuses to sit in private box, sits with 'the masses.'
- Half a million die. Soviets: 'fanaticism' 'state of anarchy.' Criticise opium Trade…