International relations 1945-2004 Chapter 2

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I'm having trouble remembering everything so created these bullet points as the BARE MINIMUM to remember for each key point/event. Names highlighted green are people present at the time, those in yellow are historians.

Long Telegram

  • 22nd February 1946
  • George F Kennan (Junior official in US embassy in Moscow)
  • “It may be expected that the … Soviet apparatus will be utilised as follows … To undermine general political and strategic potential of major Western Powers”
  • ‘X article’ – “a long term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansionist tendencies”
  • John Gaddis sees it as vital in shaping US policy towards the SU

The Truman Doctrine

  • Followed ‘Iron Curtain’ speech by Churchill
  • 12th March 1947
  • President Harry S Truman
  • “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities”
  • Motives include – stopping the SU helping Greek Communists, demonise the SU & provoke SU
  • Richard Crockatt “Bipolarity was not merely a matter of the structure of international relations but a state of mind”

Marshall Plan

  • May 1947 – “Europe is steadily deteriorating” – Under-Secretary of State William Clayton
  • 5th June 1947
  • George Marshall – senior military advisor
  • Officially called the ‘European Economic Recovery Plan’ (ERP)
  • Within 5 years gave $13.5billion
  • 16 Countries in Europe (main beneficiaries Britain, France and W Germany)
  • Some of the aid had to be spent on US goods
  • French Communist Party had 1.7million members by 1947
  • SU established Cominform in retaliation (June 1947)
  • September 1947 –

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