• A distinction is made between primary and secondary insomnia; the former has no known medical, psychiatric or environmental cause, whereas the latter has.
• Insomnia is diagnosed when:
– A person has been experiencing sleep difficulties for more than one month
– The resulting daytime fatigue causes severe distress or impairs work, social or personal functioning.
– Sleep onset latency – takes more than 30 mins to fall asleep
– Sleep efficiency – less than 85%
Several night time waking
Dement: Sleep researcher
• Dement estimates that at least ½ of all humans acknowledge that they sometimes have difficulty sleeping, but that only 5-10% of sufferers actually get diagnosed with insomnia.
• He also argues that insomnia is not a sleep disorder but rather a symptom that can have many different causes.
• This type of insomnia is not attributable to a medical, psychiatric or environmental cause.
• There are numerous primary insomnia subtypes including:
– Psychophysiological insomnia
– Idiopathic insomnia
– Sleep state misperception
• Anxiety-induced insomnia, sometimes known as learned insomnia or behavioural insomnia.
• A state of chronic (long lasting) physiological arousal maintained by high arousal and anxiety about not being able to sleep.
• results in:
– vicious cycle of trying harder to sleep and becoming tenser, expressed by patients as ‘trying…